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汉唐长安乐舞百戏对日本的影响
发布时间:2021-07-19     作者:耿占军 杨文秀   来源:摘自《汉唐长安的乐舞与百戏》   分享到:

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ju《daribenshi·lilezhi》jizai:“tuiguchao(593-628),huangtaizijiuhuzuihaoerjiangzhi,yushihan、wuzhuleshixingyushi。”“shifangtongxitu(zhizhongguo),gulingguanyouchuansuitangzhile。”suoweihanlejichaoxianyinle,chuanruribenjiaozao,dantayishouzhongguoyinledeyingxiang。erwulejizhizhongguoyinle。“nailiangshidaiyihou,shengwutianhuangdetianpingnianjian,ribendejiatingzhonghenailiangdefosizhong,zhongguoyinleshiyouzuidashilide。”ribenxuezhetianbianshangxiongdezheiyifanhua,zuyibiaodatangchaogewuyishuzairibendeyingxiangli。wenwutianhuangtaibaoyuannian(701nian),ribenfangtangshezhile“yaleliao”,you“tangleshi”“jileshi”dengzhuanmenpeixun“tangle”yiji。dangshichuanqudesuitanglequyouyibaiwushiduoge。zailezhifangmian,《daribenshi·lilezhi》shuo:“benchaosuochuanlezhi,wushengliulvqingzhongzhifa,bukedeerxiangye。gaiqishishouzhiyusuitang。”ribenshengwutianhuangtianpingqinian(735nian),zaizhongguoliuxueshijiniandejibeizhenbeiguiguo,tadaihuiqudeshujihewupindangzhongyoutonglvguan、fangxiang、《leshuyaolu》shijuan。《leshuyaolu》xiangchuanweiwuzetiansuozhuan,zaizhongguodaosongdaijiushichuanle,ribenbaocundexianzaiyezhishengdiwu、liu、qizheisanjuanle。qizhongyoulunlelvwentidezhongyaocailiao。zheixieqiwuheshujiduifazhanribenyinleshiqilezuoyongde。

ribenshengwutianhuangshezhile“neijiaofang”,lingnvjizhuanmenxuexitanglejitage。tageyeshicongzhongguochuanqude。tianpingshenhuernian(766nian),tangrenhuangfudongchaojiqinverhuangfushengnvzairibendeshelihuishanghezou“tangle",lingtianhuangchenzui,jishouqierrenxuweiguanjiewuweixia,diernianyourenmingweiyaleyuanwaizhu。chengdetianhuangshenhujingyunernian(768nian),fahuasijuxingshelihui,zairibenzuoguandezhongguorenyuanjinqingzoutangle,“yinjinqiwei”。dao9shijichunian,“qiantangpanguan”jianyuanqinggongguiguo,gengcujinleribenxuexizhongguodeyundong。cuoetianhuangzaihongrenjiunian(817nian)dezhaoshuzhonghairang“yibaiguanlewu”,yejiushixuexitangchaodelewu。ribenyinlejiatengyuanzhenmincengren“qiantangshizhunpanguan。”tazaitangchaodedouchengzhanganbaipipanengshouliuerlangxuexipipajiyi,“moji,daijinqimiao。erlangzhongshoupushushijuan,yinvqizhi,nvyishanqinzheng。”“erlangzengzitan、zitengpipageyizhang,zhenminchigui,zhongweichaotingzhongqi。”renmingtianhuangchengheliunian(839nian),tengyuanzhenminguiguo,xianhouren“yalezhu”、“yaletou”dengzhi。ciwai,dangshicongribenlaiwoguoxuexiderenyuanzhong,youyiweicong8shijixiabanyerutangzhizhi9shijichucaifanridexuewensengyongzhong,zaiwoguoxuexileershiduonian,sheliejinglun,jieyinlv,guiguoshidaihuile《lvlvxuangongtu》《riyuetu》、lvguanshiermei、xunermeizhong。haiyouyiweibeiribenyinleshixuejiachengweiribenleshengdezhumingyalejiadahuqingshang(zuyu839nian),yuribenpinganchaoshidaiyecenglaiguowoguo,mingqu《qingshangle》jushuojiweiqilitangguiguoshisuozuo。zheixierenduichuanbotangleqilehendazuoyong。dangshi,chuanruribendequmuyou《qinwangpozhenle》《wansuile》《taipingle》《chunyingzhuan》《qingbeile》《tuanluanxuan》《jianqi》《yebanle》《hemanzi》《liuhuzhou》《ruyiniang》《wumeiniang》《fanlongzhou》dengyibaiduozhong。qizhong《jiamian》(ji《lanlingwang》)《botou》《suzhonglang》《wansuile》denglewuchuanruribenhou,jiuchuanbushuai,zhijinrengcun。danliuchuanniandaijiule,nanmianbiangeng。suoyi,ribenyinleshixuejiatianbianshangxiongshuo:“congzhongguochuanrudesuitangyinle,duoshaoanribenfenggegaibianxingshi,suoxiaoguimo,chengweiyale,yihoushishidaidaizaigongtingzhongxiangchuanzhijin。”

juribenbanbenzhongfangde《qishudeshijie》yishujizai,zhongguodezajihehuanshushizaitangxuanzongkaiyuanshiqinian(729nian)chuandaoribende,dangshizaichaotingyanhuishibiaoyan,yanchudejiemuyoutundao、tuhuo、zhishu、zouhuodengjiemu。erzhaoribenrentianbianshangxiong《tianpingshidaizhilewu》zhongdeshuofa,zedangzaozaisuiyangdidayebanian(612nian),yijingchaoxianbandaoshurulesanleshiziwudenglewu。tangsanledapidongqu,shizai697nianwuzetianwansuitongtiannianjian。sanlezairibenyicheng“yuanle”、“shenle”。《sandaishilu》jizaiyouyangchengtianhuangyuanqingsinian(880nian)qiyueershijiurideyanchuqingkuang:“yurenshoudian,lanxiangpu。zuoyoujinyufudizouyinle,sanlezajigejinqineng。”zaiyinle、zajizhiwai,haiyouyuanyuzhongguodexiangpu。

ribennailiangshizhengcangyuanzhenzangzhexuduotangdaideyishuwenwu,beishiweiribendeguobao。qizhongdewudaofuzhuanghedaojuyoutanggule《pozhenle》zhongdeaozi、dadao,《lanlingwang》zhongdejieyao,tangzhongle《santai》zhongdeaozi,tangsanle《huntuo》zhongdebanbeideng。qizhonghaiyoushengwutianhuangdapingshengbaosinian(752nian)ledasijuxingdafokaiyanshisuoyongde“shizitou”daoju。ciwai,haiyouyixie“jilemian”heguleqi,rudi、qin、zheng、wuxian、ruanxian、chiba、kongkuai、tangpipa、paixiaodeng。zaiyijutangdaideqihuidangongbeishang,miaohuiyoubijiaofuzadezhongguolewuzajixingxiang,zuishangduanyouguanchuijiaofutoutuanzuoguanzheliuren,shitongsanren,qixiadankonghou、jidalaguzhulegongjiwuzheshuren;dierduanhuidaiganji,yinvzidaigan,sixiaoerpanyuanqishang;disanduanmiaohuitajianxi(jidiezhiji),yirenjianshangdiechengsiren;disiduanweinanzidaigan,sanrenpanyuan,nvtongzuoyuganzhishangduanpanzhong,qixiaweizoulezhe,youchuidi、chuipaixiao、danpipazhulegong,haiyouhuixiuwuzheduoren。zailingyijianxiancunribendewenwu《xinxigulerudaotu》(ji《tangwuhui》)shang,yehuiyouwushiyugetangdaidezaji、huanshuhelewujiemu,qizhuangban、mingchengjunyiribenhua。youqiyishiziwuzuijutese。xiyudeshiziwuchuanruzhongyuanhou,youdongduriben,qiexingshiyuneirongdouyoulexiangdangdadebianhua。congzheixielewu、zajixingxiang,jikeyikuizhitangdaijiyibiaoyandezhenxiang,youkeyizhengshiribendelewuhezajishenshouzhongguotangchao、youqishiguodouzhangandeyingxiang。

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据日本的古代足球专著《游庭秘抄》引据《口传集》记载:“蹴鞠者,起自苍海万里之异域,遍于赤县九陌之皇城。”这里的“苍海万里之异域”即指中国,“赤县九陌之皇城”则指日本。日本的另一部古代足球书《蹴鞠九十九个条》也明确指出“鞠始于大唐”。《日本书记》在“皇极天皇”条下还记载了日本大化革新的首脑人物中臣镰子与中大兄皇子于644年(唐贞观十八年)在法兴寺赐球、中大兄的皮鞋随着球被踢落的情景。中臣镰子和中大兄曾向著名的留唐学生南渊清安请教。由此可知,中国的蹴鞠很可能是留唐学生于唐初传入日本的。据日本古籍记载,中国传入日本的蹴鞠主要是不限人数的“一般场户”踢球,比如三人场、四人场、八人场等。这种运动在日本流传了一千二百年左右。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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