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唐代长安戏场的出现
发布时间:2021-07-16     作者:耿占军 杨文秀   来源:摘自《汉唐长安的乐舞与百戏》   分享到:

两汉以后,历经魏晋南北明数百年的发展,唐代的乐舞百戏呈现出精彩纷呈的繁荣局面,而在演出场地的选择上,在继承汉代殿堂、庭院和广场演出的基础上,唐代又有进一步发展,出现了常设的比较固定的戏场。

jusongchuqianyide《nanbuxinshu》jizai:“zhanganxichangduojiyucien,xiaozhezaiqinglong,qicijianfu、yongshou。”cien、qinglong、jianfu、yongshoushidangshizhanganchengbijiaoyoumingdefojiaosiyuan,fenbieweiyujinchangfang、xinchangfang、kaihuafangheyonglefang”。zheixiesiyuanzhongdexichangjiushidajiakeyisuishiqianwangguankanlewubaixibiaoyandechangshedexiangduibijiaogudingdechangsuo。tangdaizhangandexichangzhisuoyiduojizhongyusiyuanzhizhong,zejiyoulishifangmiandeyuanyin,yeyouxianshifangmiandeyuanyin。zaozaibeiweishiqi,luoyangdesiyuanjiukaishizai“xingxiang”huo“liuzhai”dejieribiaoyanlewubaixi,yixiyingengduodeguanzhong。tangdaizhangandesiyuanzegengjinyibu,jiangzheizhonglewubaixideyanchujingchanghua,yanchudechangsuoziranyejiusuizhizhujiangudinglexialai。lingyifangmian,zaitangdaizheiyangyigekaifangdeshehuidangzhong,zongjiaoxinyangziyou,fojiaoxingsheng,xintuzhongduo;jiazhisiyuanrenwenqixinonghou,yuanlinshengjingyouren,yinerchangshiyourenhuijizhichu。youqishicien、qinglongliangsi,yourenzuiduo,daiyoujishixingzhi,suoyichengweixichangjizhongzhidi。erzheixiexichangdexiyinliyehaiqueshibuxiao。jutangdaizhanggu《youxianguchui》jizai,tangxuanzongdazhongernian(848nian)shiyiyue,wanshougongzhudezhangfuqijulangzhenghaodedidizhengdelezhongbing,xuanzongteyipairenqianwangtanshi。huilaihou,xuanzongjiuwen:“gongzhuhezai?”tanshiderenhuidashuo:“zaiciensikanxichang。”xuanzonghaiweicizebeigongzhushuo:“qiyouxiaolangbing,buwangshengshi,naiguanxihu?”youcikejian,dangshixichangdeyanchuxiyindeguanzhonghenduo,liangongzhuyebeixiyinzouerbuqutanwangbingzhongdeqinrenle。

chuleshangshuzheixiechangshedebijiaogudingdexichangzhiwai,xianghandaineizhongdiantang、tingyuanheguangchangyanchudexingshirengjixudeyibaoliu;youqishiguangchangyanchudexingshi,zaidangshilewubaixifanshenghekaifangdeshehuibeijingxia,gengyoujinyibuzengjiadequshi,jinguanzheixieyanchuduoshilinshidehuobujingchangde。xiangzhangandedong、xiliangshisuojinxingde“doushengle”bisai,jiuxuanzezaikuankuodetianmenjie(jizhuquedajie)。meizhiqianqiujie、zhengyueshiwudengdaxingjieri,tangxuanzong(712-756nianzaiwei)jiuyaozaixingqinggongqinzhenglounanguangchangzachenlewubaixi,“zongshishuguankan”。tangruizong(684-690、710-712nianzaiwei)yecengyushangyuanjieqijianzaihuangchenganfumenwailinggongnvhezhangan、wanniannianshaofunverqianyurentagequle。zhenguanshisinian(640nian),taizong“yanqunchenjiheyuanwangnuoheboyuxuanwumen,zouchangyoubaixizhile。”jinglongsannian(709nian)eryueyichou,zhongzong(684nian、705-710nianzaiwei)dengxuanwumenlou,guangongnvfenpengbaheweixi,bingqiangongnvyuzaichengongqingweishisizhixizhong。zhurucilei,junyingshuyuguangchangyanchudexingshi。lingwai,zhongwupozai《qiqiufu》zhonggengmingquezhichu:“guangchangchunji,hanshijingyan,jiaozhengjingzhu,chituxuantian”。tangxuanzongzaikaiyuanernian(714nian)dechilingzhongyeyou“guangchangjiaodi,zhangxiufengpiao,juerguanzhi,jinerchengsu”demingquetifa。zheixiedoushuomingguangchangyanchushitangdaizhanganbijiaochangjiandexingshi。

zaiwoguogudai,yanyinhexinshanglewubaixichangchangshijinmilianxizaiyiqide,guyanyinzhisuoyejiuchangchangchengweixinshanglewubaixidedifang。handairuci,tangdaiyishiruci。yezhengyinweizheiyang,dangshizhangandong、xiliangshishangdeqitingjiuloushichangchengweirenmenxinshanglewuhuozhebaixidedifangyejiubuzuweiguaile。xiangtangdaixueyongruozai《jiyiji》zhongjiutidao,tangxuanzongkaiyuan(713-714)nianjian,yousanweidangshiqimingdeshirenwangchangling、gaoshi、wangzhihuanyitongdaozhangandeyijiaqiting(jiulou)yinjiu,jiupengdaoyoushijiweigongtingleshouhesiweimiaojizaicizoulechangshi,erqiechangdehaidoushisanweishirendeqijue。ciwai,xineibaifumenneiyoubaifudian,neiyouqinqinlou,weizhuwanghuiyanzhisuojia。weiyuxingqinggongxinanyudehuaexianghuilou,shitangxuanzongyuzhuwang“huijiyanlezhidi”。daminggongzhongdeyongledianweimuzong(820-824nianzaiwei)suozhi,shitayuhoufeigongzhumendeyanlezhisuo。erdaminggongxibeiyudejiuxianmenneihaiyoudoujilou。zhurucilei,junyingshuyuhuangshizaibutongshiqijinxingyanjiheguanshanglewubaixidechangsuo。zhiyuzhumingdepingkangfangbeimensanqu,benshinenggeshanwudejinvmenjizhongdedifang,zaidangshiziranyejiuchenglejingdouxiashao、xinjinshiheyouqianyoushizheyinjiuzuole、xinshanggewude“fengliusouze”。

lingwai,songdaileshide《yangtaizhenwaichuan)cengjingtidao:“zhaoliangshizaxiyiyuguifei。”liangshidangjizhangandedongshihexishi;yangtaizhen、guifeijunzhitangxuanzongdefeiziyangyuhuan。zheibiaomingzaitangdaizhangandeshichangshangyijingyoulezhuanyedezaxibiaoyanduiwu,ta(ta)menkenengtiantianzaidong、xiliangshijinxingbiaoyan。zhiyuqibiaoyandechangsuo,jikenengshidixingkaikuo、renliuzhongduodeshineiguangchang,yekenengshigudingdexichang。songdaishichangshangzhuanmenbiaoyanbaixizajudegoulan、wasi,kenengjiushizaicijichushangfazhanqilaide。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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