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风从何处来
发布时间:2021-07-16     作者:兰博文 张雪梅   来源:气象知识   分享到:

shenmelewuzongji,danyouruyingsuixing;shenmexuwupiaomiao,queyoubianhuawanqian?neibianshi“qulaiguwuji,dongxiruyouqing”defengle。

fengshidazirandejiaozi,zaitaiyangfusherede“guhuo”xia,jiezhudiqiuxuanzhuanyushuiqizhengtengningjie,qiyatidulijiaodekongqibutingyundong,kongqizhongdewuzhibeipowuzhudibutingzaigao、diqiyajianxianghushusong,dianpeiliulijianbianyunyulefengdedanshengyuchengzhang。

看似无影无踪,但也十分规律

zaishanjian,shousenlinshuiqizhengtengdeyingxiang,qingchen,fengcongshangufeiyangdaoshandianzhishang;wanshang,fengyoucongjunlingqianfuzhipoxia。chenhunjian“shangufeng”debianhuajingchangzuoyouqiaofudeshanxingluxian。zaihenduolianmiandexueshanzhishang,wulunrenheshihoufengchangjuanzhexueyiluyanzhebingchuanxiangxiachuiqu,“bingchuanfeng”youshihuizaifengding(youqiximalayashanmaibeice)lachuyitiaoxizhangdebaise“hada”,xingchengdujumeilidefengxueqiyun。dangfengkuayueshanji,beifengpoyinkongqixiachenyichanshengganrexiaoying,ouzhoudeaerbeisishan、meizhoudeluojishan、ouyadaludegaojiasuodiqujingchangchuxian“fenfeng”,suodaozhichucaomuganku、tudiguilie。taixingshanmaide“fenfengxiaoying”,zhengshihebeishenggaowen、ganhan、maipinxiandeyuanyinzhiyi。

zaipingyuan,kongqiliudongshikuaishiman,fengbianhudahuxiao,sisixilai、lvlvsongshuangde“zhenfeng”suimeishenmepohuaili,danyechangraoluanwomendesixu。dangkongqiyindianhebujunshunjianxingchengchuizhixuanwoshi,“xuanfeng”bianbuqierzhi,shierpingdierqi,shierqiaoransanqu。zaijiyuyunxiaxingchengdeqiangwoxuanfengbaozechengle“longjuan”,wulunshilulongjuanhaishishuilongjuan,suodaozhichubianyituanzao。shou“fanxinfeng”yingxiang,beiwei30°zhi35°degaoyuanneiludidaijiangshuishaoqiebianlvda,qiwengaoerwenchada,zhengfaqiangqueshiduxiao,congerzaishijieshangxingchengleyitiaoqitedeshamodai。erxiangzhongguozheiyangmianchaodahai、beikaodaludedongyadiqu,dongjibeifengcongbinglengdedaluchuixiangwennuandehaiyang,xiajinanfengcongqingliangdehaiyangchuixiangzaoredeneilu,xianzhudejifengxingqihourangzheilichangniandongganxiashi。

zaihaiyang,yinludiyuhaiyangdewenducha,baitianfengconghaimianlai,yejianfengcongludizou,zhouyejiaotijiandeguilvbianhuabianshiyuminchangshuode“hailufeng”。jingchangchuhaihangxingderenhuifaxian,beibanqiujingchangguadongbeifeng,nanbanqiujingchangguadongnanfeng,gaoduzhizhe、jianshouchengnuodexinfeng(maoyifeng)dingqicongfuredaigaoyaxiangchidaochuiqu,zhaodaoguilv,yuanyanghangxingbianshiyijianxiangduijiandandeshile。danghaifengzairedaihaiyangshangxingchengdafanweidedaqiwoxuanshi,kepadetaifeng(jufeng)biankenengzaiyanhaidenglu,haishangpiaobodechuanzhizaishouredaiqixuanyingxiangdequyusuishikenengzaoshoubaofengyudexili,youshichaoqiangtaifengdailaidesunshibuyayuyichangjubuzhanzheng。

看似千变万化,亦可定性定量

gurenrenweifengcongnalilaibiandaizhenalide“xingge”,bingtansuozhecongzhongzhaodaofengxiangyujijielunzhuanjiandeguilv。yinshangshiqibianyousifengzhishuo,jiaguwenzhanbudongfengwei“xie”,nanfengwei“jun”,xifengwei“jie”,beifengwei“yi”。chunqiushiqizongjiechubafangjifeng,《lvshichunqiu》niming:yan(dongbei)feng、tao(dong)feng、xun(dongnan)feng、ju(nan)feng、qi(xinan)feng、liao(xi)feng、li(xibei)feng、han(bei)feng。

daoletangdai,lichunfengzaizhanfengdeguochengzhongjingquediceliangchufengde24gefangwei。genjushiwubianhuabafengfenweibaji。yiju“fandafengfeichang”tingliudeshijianzaifensanji,wanlifeng(baofeng)yitianyiye,tianxiabanfeng(jufeng)liangtianliangye,tianxiajinfeng(taifengjiyishang)santiansanye,jiazhijiyihushidewufeng(shuipingrujing)、ruanfeng(chenaibuqi,lichunfengchengwei“hefeng”)heqingfeng(qingliangfumian),goulechuludizuiweiquanmiandefenglitupu。lichunfengyoucichengweishijieshangzuizaojifenglidingjideren,dongfangwenmingduifengdeganxingrenzhi,bansuizheshenghuozhongdediandibianhuan,haiyouneiduisijilunzhuanshuobujindeqingganbiaoda。

1805nianyingguorenpufu(francis beaufort)tongguohanghaijingyanduifengsujinxinglekexuedingyi,nidingle“pufufengji”,bingyu1946nianjiayikuochong,“pufufengji”(0~17ji)chulejiaruqiangtaifeng、chaoqiangtaifengdenghaiyangfengbaowai,duifengsudingyiyutangdailichunfengxiangchawuji。

看似常见无用,却能改变世界

shenghuozhongyelibukaifeng,zhongguodechuantongfengzheng、aoxianggaokongdehuaxiangyi、fulandadidereqiqiu、duanliandanshidezhulangfengfan、jixianyundongdefengzhengchonglangdoujiezhufengli,rangwomendeshenghuochongmanhuanleyuyangguang。gengweizhongyaodeshi,fengcongguzhijinyizhiweirenleitigongzhebujiededongliyunengyuan。zaikejibufadadegudai,fenglidaitidaliangdezhongtililaodong,shenzhibiaozhizhegeminzudewenmingjincheng。

chuizhizhoufengchedechuxianshidegubosi(lamo)、alabo(tishui),yijiwoguodesong、mingshiqi(guangai、zhiyan)shougongyeyichangfada,huofuzutianxiahuoxingqiyishi,zhijinzaiyunnanlijiangdengxinandashanlirengkekandaogudaifengchedeyingzi。fengchezhiguohelanjiezhutashifengmodejianzao,chenggongdijishuiwani、tianhaizaotian、kuodalingtu,bingzaizhayou、jumudenglaodongmijixingshougongyelingyulingxianquanqiu,yituomaoyiqishangpincengtongdashijiemeiyigejiaoluo。

jiezhufengfankejianzaodaxingjianchuanhangxingyuanyang,jiaguwen“fan”zitong“fan”(donghanliuxi《shishu》zhujie,“fanfanye,suifengzhangmanyuefan”),kejianyimaoyijianzhangdeyinshangrenzaojiuzhoushangguafan,liyongfenglixingchuanle。libaishiyun“zhangfengpolanghuiyoushi,zhiguayunfanjicanghai”,kejiantangdaizhihoufanchuangengchengweihaiwaimaoyidezhuli。zuihuihuangdemoguoyumingdaizhenghe,tadailingpangdadefengfanchuanduiqixiadaxiyang,cujinlezhonghuayushijiedemaoyiwanglai。

zaishiyouweiji、gongyewuranyushengtaihaojiepinfadebeijingxia,kexunhuan、kezaisheng、kechixudefengnenghetaiyangnengdengqingjienengyuanzaiduweirenleisuoguanzhu。fenglifadianzuoweihuoli、shuilifadiandeyouyibuchong,zaiquanshijiededaoguangfanyingyong,jinnianlaixunsuzaiwoguosanbeidiqudegaoshanpingyuanjidongnanyanhaituiguangkailai,chengweidaitihuashiranliaodezhongyaonengyuanjichu,weijiaotongbubiandedashanshenchu、diguangrenxidecaoyuanmuchang、guxuanhaishangdehuangliangdaoyutigonglekekaodedianlibaozhang。xiandaihuadefenglibengshuisheshi,duijiejuepianyuancaoyuanmuqurenchuyongshuigongjijipinkundiqudenongtianguangai、shuichanyangzhidoushifenyouyi。weitigaohangsuhejieyueranyou,diannaokongzhidexiandaifengfanzhuhangjishuyeyuranxingqi,jushuojieyoulvkeda15%。fengliziyuanzhongxinhuanfaqingchun,zirunzhewomenriyifengfuduocaideshenghuo。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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