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土壤,它不只是地球的“皮肤”
发布时间:2021-07-14     作者:杨顺华   来源:i自然   分享到:

在很多人看来,土壤司空见惯,并无特别之处。然而,就像空气、水和阳光一样,土壤在维系人类生存方面发挥着至关重要的作用。

turangxuejiachangchangjiangturangbizuo“diqiudepifu”,pifushirentidezuidaqiguan,gengshidiyuwailaishanghaideshouyaopingzhang。zuoweifugaizaidiqiubiaomiandeyicengsongsanwuzhi,turangyexiangpifuyiyangweichizheludishengmingdecunxu。woguozaozaitangdaijiubaturangchengwei“dipi”,zheiyitieqiedebiyu,xingxiangdigaikuoleturangdezhuyaogongnengyutedian。

chulenengshengzhangnongzuowu、tigongshiwu,turanghaiyouxuduo“teyigongneng”。takeyidiaoxuhongshui,“binglaijiangdangshuilaituyan”,huajieweiji;keyijiangchanshengwenshiqitidetanfengcunyutinei,chengweiludishengtaixitongzhongzuidade“tanfuhao”;keyiweiturangdongwu、weishengwushenzhirenleitigongqishenzhisuo,haikeyibaocunzhenguidewenhuayichan。lingwai,youxieturanghaishizhenguidelvyouziyuan,ruyunnantulin、gansucaiqiudeng,“xijing”wushu。tangruolikaiturang,renleiwenmingjiangshiqushengji,nanyiweiji。

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云南东川红土地与村庄 图片来源:中国地质博物馆《地球》

raner,yaoxiangshenrudilejieherenshiturang,guangkaobiyuhaibuxing,turangdexingchengyufenleizeshikexuerenshiturangdeqidian。

土壤的形成

turangdexingchengzhuyaoyuanzidiqiaobiaocengyanshidefenghua。baoluzaidibiaodefenghuaqiaoshiturangxingchengdewuzhijichu,tongguoyuzhouweihuanjingfashengyixiliefuzadewuli、huaxueheshengwufanying,zhujianxingchengjuyoufeilitezhengdeturang。19shijimo,eguozhumingdeturangxueheturangdilixuejiadaokuqiayefuchuanglileturangfashengxueshuo,zhichuturangshimuzhi、qihou、shengwu、dixingheshijianwudachengtuyinsudechanwu。

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山西隰县的午城黄土(中国最早的黄土)图片来源:中国地质博物馆《地球》

chengtumuzhiweiturangdefasheng、fayutigonglezuichudewuzhilaiyuan,shigouchengturangkuangwuzhi、tigongzhiwusuoxuyangfendewuzhijichu,yinci,turangjichengleturangmuzhihenduozhongyaotezheng。zhideyitideshi,yanshifenghuabingfeichengtumuzhideweiyilaiyuan,wuchubuzaidedaqijiangchenyekeyiweiturangfayutigongxinxiandiwu,shenzhiconggenbenshanggaibianyuanbenzishangerxiadechengtumoshihefenghuasulv。qihouzhuyaotongguowenduhejiangshuiquanmianyingxiangchengtuguochengzhongdewuli、huaxueheshengwuzuoyongdeqiangduhefangxiang。shengwu(baokuozhiwu、dongwuheweishengwu)zaizishendeshengminghuodongzhongyuturangzhijianfashengzhewuzhihenengliangjiaohuan,gaibianturangjiegouhekongxizhuangkuang。dixingzhuyaotongguoyingxiangqitachengtuyinsuerfashengzuoyong,yijizaizhonglizuoyongxiaduidibiaodewuzhihenengliangjinxingzaifenpei。dangran,renheyinsuduichengtuguochengdeyingxiangdouyushijianyouguan,zuoyongchengdusuishijiandeyanzhangerjiaqiang。ciwai,renleihuodongtongguodiaojiehegaibianqitachengtuyinsulaikongzhiturangdefayuchengdujifangxiang,duiturangfashengyanhuaqizhebukehushidezuoyong,chengweiwudachengtuyinsuwaizuizhongyaodeyingxiangyinsu。liru,shuidaotujiushizhangqirenweigengzuohuodongdejieguo。youyuhuanjingdechayi,wuzhongchengtuyinsudezuoyongbingbushijunyunxiangdengde,meizhongyinsudoukenengchengweichengtuguochengdezhudaozhe。

turangxingchengdesulvzequjueyuturangxingchengshidehuanjingtiaojian。yibanlaijiang,shiredehuanjinggengliyuturangdexingcheng。buguo,jishizainanjineizhongjiduaneliedebingxuehuanjingzhong,yeyouyixiediyidezhesheng,jinxingzhehuanmandeyuanshichengtuguocheng。yizhizuikuaideturangxingchengsulvchuxianzaixinxilandenanaerbeisishan,sulvwei2.5haomi/nian,gengduodeturangzeshiruguisubanxingcheng。jugusuan,diqiubiaomianturangdepingjunxingchengsulvyuewei0.056haomi/nian。yejiushishuo,zaibukaolvturangqinshideqingkuangxia,xingcheng1mihoudeturang,dagaixuyao1.8wannian。womenchangjiandeturang,qixingchengyibandouzaiwannianyishang,yineryou“qiannianguiwanniantu”deshuofa。

土壤的分类

turangfenleijishikexuerenshiturangdeqidian,yeshiyouxiaoguanliturangziyuan、zhidaonongyeshengchandezhongyaogongju。tongguoturangfenlei,renmenbujinkeyikuaisulijieturangdefashengyanhuaguilv,haikeyigenjubutongturangleixingdetedianyindizhiyi。

woguojiangyuliaokuo,turangziyuanjueduiliangda,ziyuanquyuchayimingxian,youzhefengfudeturangleixing。leisiyushengwufenleixuedejie、men、gang、mu、ke、shu、zhong,zaiwoguoxianxingdezhongguoturangxitongfenleizhong,turangxuejiajiangturanghuafenchu14getugang、39geyagang、138getulei、588geyalei,tuxideshuliangzeyuwan,chongfenshuomingleturangziyuanleixingzhifengfuhebianyichengduzhida。

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中国土壤系统分类中的14 个土纲 图片来源:中国地质博物馆《地球》

“renweitu”zuinengtixian“rentuxiangyi”zheiyiposudeziranzhexuelinian。zaishijieshanghenduodifang、tebieshizaiyouzheyoujiugengzuolishidediqu,renweihuodong,baokuorengongbanyun、gengzuo、shifeiheguangaideng,gaibianleyuanyouturangdexingchengguocheng,turangdexingtaihexingzhiyefashenglezhongdagaibian,erneixieyuanshengturangjinjinzuoweimutuhuomaizangturangcunzai。zheileishourenweihuodongshenkeyingxiangdeturangjiujiaozuo“renweitu”。

renweitudeleibieyuwoguozhangqidenonggenglishiwenhuamiqiexianglian,shilishishiqirenleishengchanguochengyuziranchengtuguochengzonghezuoyongdejieguo。womendouzhidao,wugufengdengyuyinianchenghao,liangshifengshou。qishi,wugusuoxudeshengzhanghuanjing,ruxiaomaizhangzaihandi、shuidaozhangzaishuitian,juedinglerenmengaitu、zaotudefangshi,congerxingchengleshuigengrenweituhehangengrenweituliangdarenweitu。

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江苏兴化水乡垛田 图片来源:中国地质博物馆《地球》

shuigengrenweituzhuyaozhishuidaotu,duofenbuzaiduoyudejiangnandiqu。daotianchangnianchuyuzhouerfushide“guanshui—luogan”xunhuanzhizhong,daozhiturangyijiaotichuyu“yanghua—haiyuan”dezhuangtai,turangzhongchuxianlemingxiandeshuigengyanghuahaiyuanceng。jishuitiaojiandaozhiturangzhongjileiledaliangdeyoujizhi,danyejiangyuanyoudehenduowuzhibutongchengdudilinshidiaole。genjuzheizhongcengcidexingtaichayijiyixiefanyingfujiaguochengdetexing,shuigengrenweituyoukebeijinyibufenweijianyu、tieju、tieshenheqianyurenweitusizhongleixing。

hangengrenweituduojianyushouyuliangxianzhidebeifangdiqu。hangengdefangshisuidiqubianhuajida,yinerjuyouhenqiangdequyuxing。zaihuangheliuyu,renmenzaipeifeiturangdeguochengzhong,shiyongdaliangyoujifei、jiachufei、renfenniaoyijiquanfeidenggezhongfeiliao,bingjingguoduidiandengzuoyong,zaiturangbiaocengxingchengleyicengyoujizhihanliangjiaogaodeshuhuaceng。zaizhujiangliuyu,yeyouguangfanhangengrenweituzaotuguocheng,buguofangshiyousuobutong,renmenjiangchitangzhongdeyuniduidianchengxing,xingchenglejuyoudiyutesedenidianhangengrenweitu。

keyishuo,renweitujiushirenweichuangzaohuozhejiagongchulaideturang。tiannandibeidenongmingenjushoushangxianyoudewuliaohegongju,youshichudiyoushiduifeinidiandeng,shizijiadiliyuanbenhaowushengjideturangtuotaihuangudihuanlemoyang。renweitudegaizaoguocheng,shirenmenyindizhiyi、kexueguanliturangdedianfan。

turangshiyizhongjinhubukezaishengdeziranziyuan。xingchengyilimihoudeturangkenengxuyaochengbaishangqiannian,shenzhidoumeiyourennengwanzhengjianzhengyilimiturangdexingcheng,ertayuhuimiezhijian,kenengzhichayichangbaoyu、yiciwuranshijian。genjulianheguo2015nianfabude《shijieturangziyuanzhuangkuang》baogao,shijiefanweineiturangzhengmianlinturangqinshi、turangsuanhua、turangwuran、turangyanzihuaheturangshengwuduoyangxingsangshidengduozhongweixie。jinyiturangqinshiweili,meinianjiuhuizaocheng250yidun~400yidunbiaotuliushi,daozhizuowujianchan、turanggutannenglixiajiang、yangfenheshuifenmingxianjianshao。jutongji,meinianyinqinshisuozaochengdeguwusunshikegaoda760wandun。jinnianlai,pinpinjianzhuwangluodeturangwuranshijian,gengrangrenmenduizheiyibaoguiziyuandeanquanchongmanyoulv。

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湖南娄底紫鹊界梯田 图片来源:中国地质博物馆《地球》

shengchanxingturangdejinyibusangshi,bujinjiangyanzhongweixiedaoliangshishengchanheanquan,youkenengshishubaiwanrenxianrujiehepinqiong,haijiangjiajuduizirandepohuai,cuihuirenleigongtongdejiayuan。raner,renmenzaiyangwangxingkongtansuoweizhideshihou,changchanghushilezijijiaoxiasuotalideturang。zuoweidiqiupifudeturang,xuyaorenmengengduodeguanzhuhehehu。

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东北兴凯湖边的国营农场 图片来源:中国地质博物馆《地球》

yaowangguangmaowuyindezuguodadi,qilianyushang,haioujingxiang;zhangjiangzhice,daohuapiaoxiang;huanghezhibin,mailanggungun;huangtugaoyuan,qiangouwanhe;dongbeidadi,heitusaijin;jiangnanjiadi,yumizhixiang;liaokuoxibei,huyanglinli;shijiewuji——qingzanggaoyuan,yuyutiangongshibigao。zhengshiwomenjiaoxiazheijijingdeturangzhuangdianleliaokuodedadi,yezhichenglezheipiantudishangfengfuduocaideshengmingshijie。

zhengrushijieshangmeiyouliangpianwanquanxiangtongdeshuye,diqiushangyemeiyoulianggexiangtongdeturangdanyuan,jinyishuidaotianweili,youdaibiaoxingdejiuyoushuitian、kengtian、longtian、shatianhesangjiyutangdengfengfuduocaideliyongleixing。womenjiaoxiazheiyipianpianjijingwushengdeturang,tigonglewomenyanxuqianniandeshengcunsuoxu,zaojiulesiqianniandenonggengchuanqi,yeshenkesuzaolewomendejingshenshijie。renleiyuzheikuaidadixingchenglemingyungongtongti,beilaolaodibangdingzaiyiqi!



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