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身为寄生虫为什么还会被寄生啊……
发布时间:2021-07-14     作者:   来源:科普中国   分享到:

shuodaoyinqirenleikonghuang,kongpashaoyoushengwunengxiangjishengchongzheimechenggong,jishengyuxiaohuadaodehuichong、qinruganzangdeganxichong、sharenyuwuxingdenveyuanchong……

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一名3岁男孩的肠道被蠕虫堵塞,图片来源 wikipedia

shenzhi,liandianyingdoufeichangrezhongyujieyongjishengchongdekongbuxingxiang,birumanweidianyingzhongdeduye、《yixing》zhongdebaolianchong、《tiexianchongruqin》zhongdebianzhongtiexianchong……

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电影《异形》中的抱脸虫

dannikenengxiangbudao,zheixiekaoxishijizhuxuerouweichishengcundejishengchong,yeyoukenengchengweiqitajishengchongyanzhongruoxiaokelianyouwuzhudejizhu……

什么是重寄生

zheishiyige“tanglangbuchan,huangquezaihou”degushi,dangyizhongjishengshengwubeilingyizhongjishengshengwujishengshi,zhongjisheng(hyperparasitism)xianxiangbianchuxianle。youshi,zheizhongjishengguanxishenzhikeyifazhandaosanzhongjisheng、sizhongjisheng。

jugelizi,caifendie(pieris rapae)deyouchongbeicaifendiepanrongjianfeng(cotesia glomerata)jisheng,erzheizhongxiaoxingjishengfengyoubeixiaozhechunjifeng(lysibia nana)jisheng,caifendiepanrongjianfenghexiaozhechunjifengfenbieshicaifendiedejishengfenghezhongjishengfeng。

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小折唇姬蜂,图片来源wikipedia

dianxingdezhongjishengshengwuzhuyaocunzaiyukunchonggang,youqishifenbuyumochimuzhongdexiyaoyamuyijishuangchimu、qiaochimu,muqianyizhimochimuzhongde17gekeyijishuangchimuheqiaochimuzhongdeshaoshujigezhongweizhongjishengshengwu。

zhiwujietongyangcunzaiguiyidezhongjishengguanxi,youyileizhiwu,mingzijiujiaozhongjisheng,shitanxiangkezhongjishengshu(phacellaria)xiadewuzhong。

zheileizhiwuyibanjishengzaisangjisheng、hujishengdengzhiwudezhimanshang,ersangjisheng、hujishengdengzhiwuzeshizaimubenshumuzhishaoshangyingbanjishengshenghuo。

重寄生植物往往无茎无叶,丛生于寄主植物上。

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某种重寄生,图片来源 phytoimages

世界的本质就是套娃?

shangmianzheixiehaishibijiaojiandandejishengguanxi,ziranjiezhonghaiyoubushaoduozhongzhongjisheng,yougedianxingdelizishiyigeweishengwushiyanshifaxiande5zhongjishengguanxi。

zaizheigeanlizhong,jishengguanxicongyizhichuniaokaishi,liyingdeyouchongjishengyuchuniaofubu,kaoxixueweisheng,youchongyoubeiyizhongzhongjishengfengjisheng,zhongjishengfengtineizexiedaiyizhongxijun——woerbakeshijun(shijieshangfenbuzuiweiguangfandegongshengjunzhiyi),erwoerbakeshijunzijizebeishijuntiqinxi(tamenzaixijuntineiziwofuzhi),jishengguanxijurandadaole5zhongzhiduo,jianzhishitaowabenwayoumuyou!

raner,jishengguanxikenenghaimeiyouzhongzhi,zuixiaodejishengzhekenengshizhuanzuozi,zheiyijingsuanbushangshishengwule,ershiyileiteshudejiyinpianduan,tamennengdandufuzhi,bingqiejiangfuzhierlaidepianduancharudaoqitajiyinshunxushangdebutongweidian,jiuxiangshijishengzaijiyinzhongdejishengchong,erqie,zhuanzuozinengganraojiyindezhengchanggongneng,yehenxiangjishengchongduijizhudesunhai。

重寄生关系中的相互制约

yourenrenwei,zhongjishengguanxihecao、shicaodongwu、shiroudongwuzhijiandeguanxiyouxiexiangsi,nenggouhuxiangzhiyue。

zheiyangxianghuzhiyuedeliziqueshicunzai,birushuoyouyizhongjiaozuopianceshechongcao(ophiocordyceps unilateralis)dezhenjun,jiuhenxihuanjishengzailaishigongbeiyi(camponotus leonardi)detinei。

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感染了偏侧蛇虫草的蚂蚁,图片来源 wikipedia

erqie,pianceshechongcaohuigaibianmayidexingweimoshi,rangmayilikaiyuanbendemishilujinghejuzhudi,zhuanerpaodaowenduheshidushihezhenjunshengzhangdequyu,ranhou,zheixiemayihuijinjinyaozhuyemaizhidaosiwang,zheigeguochengzhong,pianceshechongcaohuicongmayitoubuzhangchuzishitibingshifangbaozi,wanchengshengzhiguocheng。

buguo,laishigongbeiyiyebushizhinengzuoyidaibi,tamenxuehuile“yijunzhijun”。pianceshechongcaohuibeilingwaiyizhongzhenjunjisheng,zheizhongzhenjunnengxiaomiepianceshechongcao。

yushi,mayimentongguohuxiangshulimaofa,rangzheizhongzhenjunzaiyiqunzhongkuosan,jiecixianzhipianceshechongcaoduiyiqundepohuaili,congershisanzhezhijiandeguanxidadaoxiangduipinghengdezhuangtai。

重寄生还能治病呢

huoxushishouciqifa,yourenkaishiyanjiuzhongjishengshengwuzaibingchonghaifangzhiyijiyiliaolingyudeyingyongjiazhi。

julilaishuoba,liyibingjun(cryphonectria parasitica)shiyizhongnengduimeizhoulishuzaochengyanzhongsunhaidezhenjun(liyibingtongshiyeshizuizhongyaodesenlinbinghaizhiyi),danyouyizhongbingdu(didulibingduchv1),nengzailiyibingjunjianchuanbo,shiliyibingjunchuxiancixingbuyudexianxiang。

tongguorenweishifangganrandidulibingduchv1deliyibingjun,nengyouxiaohuanjieliyibingjundepohuaili,zheizhongshengwufangzhifangshiyijingqudeyidingchengxiao。

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栗疫病菌感染导致树皮开裂,图片来源wikipedia

zhiyuyiliaofangmian,henduoshijuntinengkongzhixijundezengzhi,yaoshinengyongyuzhibing,bikangshengsukeyouxiaoduole。muqian,bushaoyanjiurenyuandoujiangshijuntiliaofazuoweiduikangchaojixijundeyizhongsilu,huoxuyouyitianwomenjiunengyongshangshijunti“yaowu”leni。


shenhezhuanjia

ranhao

zhimingkepuzuojia

kedouwuxianpuyuanchuangwenzhang/zhuanzaizhuminglaiyuan


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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