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中国家养动物从哪里开始
发布时间:2021-07-14     作者:   来源:中国国家地理   分享到:

maniuyang,jiquanshi

zheishiwomenzhongguodechuantong“liuchu”

congjiaguwenkaishi

“jia”zheigezi

jiushizaixiangzhengwudingde“mian”xia

jiayigedaibiaozhude“shi”

zheiyeshuomingle

dongwuyuzhongguorendeguanxiduomejinmi

zhongguojiayangdongwukaishichuxiandeshijianhezhongleiyiciwei

jujin1wannianzuoyouchuxiangou

jujin9000nianzuoyouchuxianzhu

jujin5000duonianzuoyouchuxianmianyang

jujin4000duonianzuoyouchuxianhuangniu

jujin3700duonianzuoyouchuxianma

jujin3600nianzuoyouchuxianji

……

youledongwupengyoumendepeiban

renleideqiantuhefengjingjianjianxuanlanqilai

ertongshifashengdenongyedashijianyeshilinlangmanmu

dayuezaijujin1wannianqianhou

zaipeidaokaishichuxian

jujin9000-7000nianjian

zhangjiangliuyudedaozuonongyejingjizhujianxingcheng

jujin8000nianqianhou

huangheliuyuyijingyoulezhongzhisuheshudehanzuonongye

houlaiyouchuxianledadouhexiaomaidengdeng

womendezuxian

zaizaipeiwugu、siyangliuchudeguochengzhong

yibubumaijinlewenmingdemenjian

微信图片_20210714101005.jpg

图自《中华遗产》2010年8月

renleizuixianxunhuadedongwushi……

zaihebeishengxushuixiannanzhuangtouyizhi

chutudejujin1wannianzuoyoudegou

shiqijinweizhifaxiandezhongguozuizaodejiachu

zheishi1986nian5yue

youbeijingdaxuekaoguwenboxueyuanjiaoshouliboqian

dailingdekaoguduikaizhanfajuededaodeshouhuo

shijiegegewenmingqiyuandiqudekaogufaxiandouzhengshi

goushirenleixunhuadediyizhongdongwu

weishenmerenleizuixianxunhuagou

xianzaisheiyejibuchujieshi

buguoyouyigedongwuxuejiazuodeshiyan

keyiweiwomendetuicezuocankao

youdongwuxuejia

jianglang、huli、hedengchangjiandequankedongwu

fenbieguanqilai

meitianyoutongyigerenqu“kanwang”tamenyixia

dongwujiandaomoshengderenhuijiao,zheishitamendebenneng

qichu,meitianmeizhidongwudouyaojiao

yiduanshijianzhihou,youyizhibujiaole

tashishei?shilang

yinweilangshouxianxiguanleren、juederenbuzaimosheng

suoyibianbujiaole

zheigeshiyanshuoming,zaizheijizhongdongwuzhong

langshizuirongyigenrengoutongde

keyiherenjianlimouzhongguanxi

ergouzeshiyoulangxunhuaerlaide

zheigexiandaidongwuxuedeshiyan

yexukeyibangwomenxiangxiangchu1wannianqian

gouweishenmeshouxianjinrulerenmendeshenghuo

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◎ 四川三台县东汉郪江崖墓中的狗拿耗子石刻

gounahaozi,bingbudoushiduoguanxianshi。hanrenbatazuoweifudiaoneirongkehuayumushi,yebushisuiyizhiju,ershibieyoushenyi:shiershengxiaozhong,goushutu,haozishushui,gounalehaozi,yuyiweituzhenshui、mushimianzaoshuihai。(sheying/yuanrongsun,tuzi《zhonghuayichan》2020nian12yue)

muzhu,qiongshushengdehaogongzuo

xiangdaozhu(shi)yu“jia”“huan”“hun”dengzideyuanyuan

yijizaoqicunluoyizhizhongbianyoude“feizhai”xingxiang

nihuoxuhuiyiweijiazhuyizhidoubeiyangzaiquanli

qishizaigudaizhongguo

zhuzaihenzhangshijianlishixiangniuyangyiyangchengqunfangmude

hanwudishidemingxianggongsunhong,zaonianshenghuopinkun

jiucengzaibohaibian“muzhu”weisheng

eryulaopoliuxia“juanqimei、xiangjingrubin”diangude

donghancaizilianghong

shenzhihaizaihuangjiayuanlin“shanglinyuan”lifangguozhu

genjudangshijizai,muzhuzailianghanshiqi

keyishuoshiqiongshushengdechangjiangongzuo

shouxianzhuyitaiduozi

maixiaozhubimainiudu、yanggaogengbianyi

qicimuzhuyebushitebielei

zhuaichirouruandeshuibianzhiwu

aizainilijueshi、shuilidagun

yinciyibandoushibazhugandaohebian、hubianrenqihuodong

zheishikeyichoukongzuoxialaidudushu

gushihou,liangshishao、huangdiduo

renpingjiazhuzaiwaimianzijizhaoshichi

shihenyouxiaolvdeyangfa

danjiazhutimaoxishubutaikangdong

xiaozhuyebuxiangxiaoniu、xiaoyangneiyangjianzhuangshanpao

yincizaiyandonghuochanzishi,rengyaobazhuquanqilaiyang

houlaisuizhedongyaqihoubianlengbiangan

beifangshihefangzhudeyewaishidizhujianjianshao

jiashangnongminfaxianquanyangdezhuzhangrougengkuai

hainengshoujizhufenfeitian

quanyangcaichengweizhuliuyangzhufangshi

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约克夏猪
原产地:英国约克郡
分布最广的家猪品种

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太湖猪
原产地:江浙太湖流域
最能生的家猪品种

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广西巴马香猪
原产地:广西巴马瑶族自治县
微型家猪品种,适于整只烘烤

image.png

金华两头乌
原产地:浙江金华
肉质多汁且脂肪丰富

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杜洛克猪
原产地:美国
著名的瘦肉型家猪品种

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伊比利亚黑猪
原产地:伊比利亚半岛
制作西班牙火腿的顶级食材

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酷你酷你猪
原产地:新西兰
性格亲近人,常被当成宠物

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匈牙利卷毛猪
原产地:匈牙利
耐寒耐晒,卷毛剃下能织毛衫

tesejiazhupinzhong

huitu/zhengqiuyang,tuzi《bowu》2019nian1yue

mianyang?shanyang?fenbuqing

renleiduishanyanghemianyangdexunhua

keyizhuisudao11000nianqian

zheiliangzhongyangdexunhuajihushitongshide

erqiedoufashengzaiyazhoudexinanbudiqu

mianyangshiyoupanyangxunhuaerlai

ershanyangdezuxianzeshiyeshanyang

xianjinshijiegedideshanyanghemianyang

jihukeyikendingshi

tongguobutongdeyeshengzhongxunhuaerchengde

shangchaoqingtongsiyangfangzunzhongdeyang

rouranhexukanqilaihewomenshuxideshanyang

jihumeiyouchayi

kejianneishi

zheizhongjiachuyijingbeipubianyangzhi,bingbeirenshushi

zaihenanyinxuchutudejiaguwen“buci”zhong

zhichulemianyangyushanyangdefenbie

danshimianyangheshanyangdejiexian

gurensihufendebingbutaiqingchu

zaidongjinxuezheguopudui《erya》dezhuzhong

taxiedaoyangkeyidanchunyiyansebiaoji:

baiyangweimianyang,heiyangzhishanyang

zheizhongqufenfangshiweibeiweinongxuejiajiasixiesuoyanxi

tazainongxuezhuzuo《qiminyaoshu》zhong

yechengmianyangweibaiyang,shanyangweiheiyang

zhiyujiangshanyanghemianyangzheilianggemingcheng

zhenzhenganzhaoxunhuazuxiandechabiequfenkailai

zeshisongdaiyihoudeshile

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◎ shanyangyumianyang

caoyuanwuchu:niu、ma、luotuo、yang,zhisuoyisuanwuchu,shiyinweilimianbaohanleliangzhongyang,shanyanghemianyang,talianggezhanyigexiwei。mianyangshengxingyonglanruanruo,shanyangxinggehuoyue。neimenggudemuyangrenzongshibamianyangheshanyanganzhao2:1zhi3:1debilihunyangzaiyiqi,zheiliangzhongyangshenghuozaiyiqikequzhangbuduan。(sheying/gengyi,tuzi《zhongguoguojiadili》2012nian10yue)

zhongguogudaibunengchiniurouma?

jinguanlidaitongzhizhezhongshigengniu

nongminmenduizijiagengniuganqingshenhou

niurouxiangbizhurouyangrouqueshishixiqueshicai

danyaoshuo“zhongguogudaibuchiniurou”

kongpashiyanguoqishi

huaxiaxianminzaixinshiqishidaijiuxunhualehuangniu、shuiniu

zhidaochunqiushidai

“niugeng”zheizhongxianjinshengchanlicaidengchang

zainiugengjiaozaopujideguanzhongdiqu

qinguolvxianbashaniudingweizhongzui

handaiheweijin,sizaigengniukepansixing

zhifazhiyangengshenyuqin

tangdaishaniuzuidaoshizhiliufangbukantou

queyu“shiebushe”binglie

huangdidashetianxiadoujiubule

zhidaomingqingshi

sizaigengniurengyaoshouzhangze、liufangzhixing

tuniujinlingsuiyan

danzuzhibulerenmenchiniurou

shouxian,falvjindeshi“sizaigengniu”,bushichiniurou

zaidabufenshiqi

shiquyiyongjiazhidelaoniu、bingniu

shangbaoguanfuhoukeyihefazaisha,rouyenengmaimai

qici,niurou、niupideqianzaishichanghenda,youliketu

“youmaimaijiuyoushalu”

tangsongnianjian

changyouminjiansizizainiumairou、chiroudejizai

mingqingshijinguanyoujiaqiangletuniuguanzhi

danshouyoumuminzuyinshixiguanyingxiang

niurouzaishichangshangyuefachangjian

daolewanqing

womenshuxidelanzhouniuroumian、huainanniuroutangdengmeishi

wanquankeyiguangmingzhengdadichi

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◎ 兰州牛肉面

lanzhouniuroumiancaiyongdeniurouzhuyaoshichanzigansuheqinghaidemaoniu,zaozai《lvshichunqiu》zhongjiuyoujizai“rouzhimeizhe,maoxiangzhirou”。zhuniuroushi,shifuhuizaidiaoliaobaolijiarushijizhongdiaoliao,gezhongyuanliaoruhepeibi,wangwangmibushiren。zhengzongdeniuroumianzhiyouzailanzhoucainengchidao,qitadifangwulunshise、xing、weidouyulanzhoubutong。(sheying/gengyi,tuzi《zhongguoguojiadili》2016nian2yue)

jimazhidingbiaozhunderen

congxizhoudebolekaishi

zhongguojiubuduanliuchuanzheboleshimadechuanshuo

chuanshuobijingbuliyujishuchuanbo

ruhejiangzheixiangjingyanzhixuezhujianlianghuani

gurenzhuzaoletongmamote

piaoliangde“matafeiyan”

buzhishiyishuchuangzao,haishiyizhong“xiezhen”

youqishiduitaneiqitededuicebudejilu

jihourenliuxialeyigeshibietianmadedongtaimoxing

zheizhongyongmoxingdefangshi

jimingmajianli“biaozhunxiang”dediaosu

zaihandaijiao“mashi”

taduijianliliangma、mingmaxuanyoubiaozhunqidaozhongyaozuoyong

yinweianmajinghuotuhuaantusuoji

douburuliti、quanmaolaidezhiguan

zai《houhanshu·mayuanchuan》li

tidaolelianggezhuzaoguomashideren

yiweishihanwudishidedongmenjing

lingyiweishidonghanguangwudishidefubojiangjunmayuan

liangrendoushanyuxiangma

dongmenjingzhuzaodetongmashi

beihanwudizhiliyuzhanganchengdelubanmenwai

lubanmenyoucigengming“jinmamen”

mayuanzebujinshiweinengzhengshanzhandejiangjun

qixianzujizhaoguomingjiangzhaoshe

yinqigongjizhuozhuheshanyujiayumapi

zhaohuiwangtecijuehao“mafujun”,congcihoudaijiexingma

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◎ 此马同侧的两蹄为同一方向,这种步法称为“对侧步”。对侧步对马的智商要求极高,须经过严格训练方能达到,一旦练成,有些马能遗传给后代。铜马头上有一形似蝙蝠侠的面具,它是汉代被称为“当卢(颅)”的马冠。(摄影/张奋泉,图自《中华遗产》2012年3月)

ji!baohuyuanji

jicongbeixunhuazhishouciquanqiukuosanwanbideshuqiannianzhong

duirenleieryan,daduoshushihoubingbushiyonglaizuoshiwu

zaizaoqimanzhangdesuiyuezhong

jizhuyaoyonglaijisi、zhanbu、baoshideng

haiyoudeyonglaizuoguanshanghedadouyong

dangjiherenzaiwenhuashangdeguanxiriyijinmidetongshi

caizhujiancongguanshangdongwuchengweirenmenxiaidemeishi

congrenleizuikaishixunyangyuanji

daoshangshiji50niandaizheiduanmanzhangdeshijianli

suiranjiajizaixingtaishangchanshengle

zhuduoqubieyuqizuxianyuanjidebianhua

zaifenbushangyecongyuanchandidongnanyahenanya

chengweibianbuquanqiudewuzhong

danyuanjizaiqilishifenbufanweineideshengcunzhuangtai

bingweifashengtaidadegaibian

buguo,erzhanhou

biaozhunhuadenongyeshengchantixi

bujingaibianlejiajideshengcunzhuangtai

yezuizhongyingxiangdaoleyewaideyuanji

yuanjiyumaojingli,waixingyouya,jiaoshengdute

shigulaoerzhenguidezhongzhiziyuan

yanjiuhebaohujiazhihengao

baohuyuanjidejiyinduoyangxing

duiyuzhongyouzhongyaodeyiyi

erbaocunhuodeyuanji

jiushizaibaocunchixufazhandewuzhongziyuan

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◎ 在中国,尽管自上世纪80年代起原鸡就被列为国家二级保护动物,但原鸡的情况可能不容乐观。图为在广西壮族自治区崇左市境内拍到的一对红原鸡,一般来说,它们偏好比较开阔、地面落叶稀少而靠近小道、林缘的位置。(摄影/秋风鸟,图自《中国国家地理》2017年1月)

wugufengdeng,liuchuxingwang

shiyonglaixingrongshehuifanrongdeyanyu

liuchugeyousuozhang

congguzijin

tamenweizhongguorendeshenghuotigonglejibenbaozhang

zaimanzhangsuiyuezhong

liuchuyishirenmenshengchanshenghuodehaobanlv

zaizhongguochuantongwenhuashiershengxiaozhong

tamenquanburuxuan

zheiyetixianlezhongguorenduitamendezunzhongyukending

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