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汉代长安乐舞与百戏演出场地的选择
发布时间:2021-07-13     作者:耿占军 杨文秀   来源:摘自《汉唐长安的乐舞与百戏》   分享到:

根据萧亢达的研究,汉代乐舞百戏的演出,多数是在宾婚嘉会酒酣耳热之际进行,因此宴飨之所往往就是演出的场所。我国古代的建筑布局,很早就有前堂后寝之制,两汉时期依然如此。堂(汉代又称“殿")是治事、迎宾待客之所,故主人待客一般都在前堂举行,乐舞百戏的演出自然也就定在此处了。亚搏App这一点,汉代的画像石中也有反映。像河南南阳唐河县针织厂汉墓画像石百戏图、河南密县打虎亭汉墓乐舞百戏图、四川彭县九尺铺汉画像砖乐舞图等均明确显示,当时的乐舞百戏都是在独立的殿堂进行演出的。

汉代较大规模的乐舞百戏演出,往往将演出地点从殿堂内移至殿堂前庭院。宾主坐于堂上宴饮观赏,乐人则在堂前庭中表演,场地既宽敞又明亮。而之所以选择庭院演出乐舞百戏,一方面是因为观众人数较多,另方面是因为乐舞百戏的规模较大,殿堂之中无法容纳。
汉代更大规模的乐舞百戏演出,就只能选择在广场上进行,这种广场应当是宫苑广场或民间府第外广场。像汉武帝元封三年(前108年)春在长安举行的一次百戏演出,“三百里内皆观"。这么多人前来观看,再大的殿堂、庭院也是无法容纳的。史籍虽未言明演出的地点,但可以推知这只能在宫殿外的广场上才能容纳,而且很可能是在平乐观。

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汉代长安地区的九个兽圈,除了彘圈和虎圈、狮子圈外,其他的已不可考。不过,位于上林苑西界长杨宫中的射熊观,也是一处观看斗兽表演的场所。据(《汉书·扬雄传》记载,汉成帝为了向胡人夸示汉地多禽兽,曾于一年秋天命老百姓入南山捕捉野兽,然后将捉到的熊罴豪猪虎豹狖獲狐兔麋鹿等放至长杨宫射熊馆,周围用网围起来,令胡人入内与兽相斗,“自取其获”。汉成帝则亲临观看。当时,大文学家扬雄也随同前往,回来后就写了《长杨赋》进行劝谏。不管扬雄的劝谏能否发挥作用,但总算是尽了人臣之责了。


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