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中国外来入侵物种名单(昆虫篇)
发布时间:2021-07-13     作者:空凤小仙   来源:人呆手户   分享到:



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zhongguohuanjingbaohubu、zhongguokexueyuangongfabuguosipizhongguowailairuqinwuzhongmingdan(2003nianfabuzhongguodiyipiwailairuqinwuzhongmingdan、2010nianfabuzhongguodierpiwailairuqinwuzhongmingdan、2014nianfabuzhongguodisanpiwailairuqinwuzhongmingdan、2016nianfabuzhongguodisipiziranshengtaixitongwailairuqinwuzhongmingdan),sipimingdanzhonggongbaokuoruqinwuzhong71zhong,qizhongkunchong21zhong。

neime,zhei21zhongruqinhaichongshisheini?youyounaxieweihaini?rangwomenyiqilairenshiyixiaba!

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图源:wikipedia

zhebianeopogona saccharibiechengxiangjiaoe(banana moth),shuyulinchimuhuieke,tayuanchanyufeizhouredaiheyaredaidiqu,xianyikuosandaoouzhou、nanmeizhoudengdi。baximushiqizhongyaojizhuzhiwu。1987nian,zhebianesuijinkoudebaximujinruwoguoguangzhou,zhihoukuosandaowoguohainan、guangdongdeng19geshengshi。

蔗扁蛾食性十分广泛,寄主植物达60种以上,严重威胁香蕉、甘蔗、玉米、马铃薯等农作物及温室栽培的植物,特别是一些名贵花卉。蔗扁蛾以钻蛀性著称,主要从植株受损伤部位侵入,然后扩散到植株的健康组织,幼虫生活在植株体内,取食植株的茎和根,严重蛀食植物至只剩一层薄的外表皮。

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图源:eng.lbst.dk

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图源:www.invasive.org

shidisongfenjieoracella acutashuyubanchimufenjieke,yuanchuangyumeiguo,zhuyaoweihaihuojusong、shidisong、jialebisongdengsongkezhiwu。1988nianshidisongfenjiesuishidisongwuxingxifanzhicailiaojinruguangdongtaishan,houkuosandaoguangxi、fujian、jiangxi、hunandengdi。

ruochonghecichengchongcixisongshaozhiyeweihai,shouhaidesongshuyanzhongshishaoshangzhenyejiduan,bunengshenzhanhuodingyakusi、wanqu,xingchengcongzhi。laozhenyedaliangtuoluo,shangcunzhenyeyeyinbanfameiwubingyingxiangguanghezuoyong。qiuguoshouhaihoufayushouxianzhi,bianxiao、wanqu、bianxing,yingxiangzhongzizhilianghechanliang。

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图源:www.invasive.org

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图源:wikipedia

hongzhidaxiaodudendroctonus valensyoumingqiangdaxiaodu,shuyuqiaochimuxiaoduke,yuanchanyumeiguo、jianadadengmeizhoudiqu,1998nianzaiwoguoshanxishengyangcheng、qinshuishoucifaxian。

hongzhidaxiaoduduisongkezhiwu(yousong、huashansong、huabeiluoyesong、zhangzisongdeng)chanshengyanzhongweihai,chengchongjiyouchongweihaidebuweibaokuoshugandejibu、genbuderenpizuzhi,fashengyanzhongdeqingkuangxia,youchongzhushizuoyongxingchengdekengdaolianjiedaoyiqi,yizhiyanshendaozhucegenderenpizuzhi,daozhibeihaishumusiwang。

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图源:entnemdept.ufl.edu

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图源:见水印

meiguobaiehyphantria cuneasuchengmeiguobaidenge、qiumumaochong,shuyulinchimudengeke,yuanchanyubeimeizhou,shijushizhumudejianyihaichong,xianyiruqindao32geguojia,1979nianchuanruwoguoliaoningdandongyidai。

meiguobaieshixingguangfanqieshiliangjingren,jizhuzhiwugengshiduoda636zhong,shenmekuoyeqiaomu、guanmu、huahui、nongzuowu、shenzhiluozizhiwu、zacaodoubufangguo。youchongzifuhuahoubiantusijiewang,qunjizaiwangzhongqushiyepian,jizhongbaofashi,tamenzhichudedaxingwangzhuangchaozhetianbiri,haoxiangqiutiandemubuyiban。

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图源:见水印

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图源:wikipedia

anshuzhiyingjixiaofengleptocybe invasashuyumochimujixiaofengke,yuanchanyuaodaliya,2007nian,zaiwoguoguangxishoucifaxian。

桉树枝瘿姬小蜂专一为害桉属植物,在植株的嫩枝、叶柄及叶片主脉上形成虫瘿,导致叶、枝肿大变形,新梢和侧枝丛生,暴发时可导致枝叶枯萎凋落,植株生长受阻甚至死亡,造成苗圃及新植桉林严重损失。

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图源:wikipedia

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图源inaturalist.ca

daoshuixiangjialissorhoptrus oryzophilusshuyuqiaochimuxiangjiake,yuanchanbeimei,1976 niankaishizaiyazhoushuidaozhongzhiquchuanbo,1988nianzaiwoguohebeitanghaishoucifaxian。

daoshuixiangjiagumingsiyi,zhuyaoweihaishuidao,yibankedaozhishuidaojianchan10~30%,yanzhongshikeda50%yishang,shenzhijueshou。chengchongyandaoyeyemaikenshiyerou,liuxiazhangduanbudengdebaisezhangtiaoban。youchongyaoshidaogen,zaochengduangen,shidaozhushengzhangaixiao,fennieshujianshao,daoguqianlizhongxiajiang,congeryingxiangshuidaochanliang。

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图源:www.lsuagcenter.com

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图源:Pinterest

honghuoyisolenopsis invictashuyumochimuyike,yuanchannanmei,shiguojizhongdaweixianxingruqinhaichong,beiissglieweiquanqiu100zhongweihaizuiyanzhongdewailairuqinwuzhongzhiyi,2003 nianzaiwoguotaiwantaoyuanshoucibaodaofashenghonghuoyi。

honghuoyishixingza,mishinengliqiang,shiwubaokuo149zhongyeshenghuacaodezhongzi,57zhongnongzuowu,hainengbushakunchong、qiuyin、qingwa、xiyi、niaoleideng,haihuizuaiwoguojingjifazhan(biruduigonggongsheshi——dianli、tongxunxitongyouyidingweihai),tongshiduirenleishentijiankangheshengminganquanzaochengweixie。

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图片来源:piat.org.nz

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来源:en.wikipedia.org

pingguoduecydia pomonellashuyulinchimujuaneke,yuanchanyuouyadalunanbudiqu,20 shiji50 niandaiqianhoujingyouzhongyadiqujinruwoguoxinjiang。xianyibianbuyushijiegedazhoudepingguohelidechanqu。

pingguodueyouchongzhushiguoshi,beizhudeguoshiwufashiyongbingqiejiyiluoguo,zhuguolvkezai 80%yishang。pingguoduedangqianzaizhongguozaochengdejingjisunshida 2.98yiyuan/nian,qizhongchanliangsunshiwei1.40yiyuan/nian, fangzhifeiyongwei1.58yiyuan/nian。

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图源:见水印

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图源:见水印

sanyecaobanqianyingliriomyza trifoliishuyushuangchimuqianyingke,yuanchanyubeimeizhou,xianzaiyijingkuosandaomeizhou、ouzhou、feizhou、yazhou、aozhouhetaipingyangdaoyude 80 duogeguojiahediqu,2005 nianzaiwoguoguangdongzhongshanshoucifaxian。

sanyecaobanqianyingjizhufanweiguangfan,zhongleichaoguo400zhong,qiyouchongzaijizhuyepianneiqianshi,xingchengbuguizechongdao,jiangdizhiwuguanghezuoyong,yanzhongshidaozhiluoyeshenzhikusi,shihuahui、guoshudengyuanyizhiwudeguanshangheshangpinjiazhixiajianghuosangshi。

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图源:www.nexles.com  

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图源:广东森防检疫

songzhiyuandunjiehemiberlesia pitysophilayouchengsongtuyuanjie,shuyubanchimudunjieke,yuanchanriben,20 shiji 70 niandaimozaizhongguoguangdongfaxian。

songzhiyuandunjiezhuyaoweihaisongshuzhiwu,yimaweisongshouhaizuizhong,zaisongshudezhenye、nenshao、qiuguoshangxishizhiye,shizhenyehenenshaoshengzhangshoudaoyizhi,yanzhongyingxiangsongshuzaozhiqiguandegongnenghezhenyedeguanghezuoyong,zhishibeihaichubiansefahei、yisuohuofulan,zhenyekuhuang,shouhaiyanzhongshizhenyetuoluo,xinchoudezhitiaobianduan、bianhuang,shenzhidaozhiquanzhukusi。

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图源:广东森防检疫

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图源:Alchetron

yexinyejiabrontispa longissimashuyu‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍qiaochimutiejiake,yuanchanyuyindunixiya,2002 nianzaiwoguohainanshengshoucifaxian。

椰心叶甲主要为害棕榈科植物 ,其中椰子是最主要的寄主植物 。 椰心叶甲对未展开叶片为害尤其严重,而且繁殖速度快、破坏性强和防治难度大。‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

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图源:www.iberia-natur.com

锈色棕榈象甲Rhynchophorus ferrugineus又名红棕象甲,属于鞘翅目象甲科,原产南亚和东南亚地区,1998 年在我国海南文昌县最早发现。现在除南美洲和南极洲外,50%以上的椰枣种植区和15%以上的椰子种植区的国家和地区均有锈色棕榈象甲为害的报道。

锈色棕榈象甲成虫、幼虫均为害棕榈科植物,后者造成损害更大,幼虫钻进树干内取食树干疏导组织,导致树干逐渐成为空壳,无法挽救。

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图源:wikimedia

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图源:bladmineerders.nl

xuanlingmufangchiwangchuncorythucha ciliatashuyubanchimuwangchunke,yuanchanbeimeidezhongdongbu,woguoyu 2006nianzaihubeiwuhanshoucifaxian,zhuyaoweihaixuanlingmushuzhiwu。

xuanlingmufangchiwangchunzaixuanlingmushuguandicengyepianbeimiancixizhiye,zuichuzaochenghuangbaisebandianheyepianshilv,yanzhongshiyepianyouyemaikaishigankuzhizhengyeweihuang、qingheijihuaisi,congerzaochengshumutiqianluoye、shumushengzhangzhongduan、shushishuairuozhisiwang。erqiehaikexiedaixuanlingmuyekubingjunheganshuzhanghuiqiaojun,daozhishumusiwang。

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图源:bladmineerders.nl

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扶桑绵粉蚧 Phenacoccus solenopsis

fusangmianfenjiephenacoccus solenopsisyouchengmianhuafenjie,shuyubanchimufenjieke,yuanchanbeimeizhou,2008nianzaiwoguoguangzhoushifusangmianfenjiebeishoucifaxianhouxunsukuosan。

扶桑绵粉蚧寄主植物范围十分广泛,可达30多个科百余种植物。其以雌成虫和若虫刺吸植物汁液为害,主要为害扶桑、棉花等植物的幼嫩部位,包括嫩枝、叶片、花芽和叶柄。

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图源:dlnr.hawaii.gov

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左:雄性 右:雌性

citongkuajixiaofengquadrastichus erythrinaeyouchengcitongjixiaofengshuyumochimujixiaofengke,yuanchanmaoliqiusi,2005 nianwoguoshoucizaishenzhenfaxian。

citongkuajixiaofengshiyizhongzhuanyiweihaicitongshuzhiwudejianyixingruqinhaichong,beiweihaidecitongzehuizaiyepian、nenzhidengchuchuxianjixing、zhongda、huaisi、chongying,yanzhongshiyinqizhiwudaliangluoye、zhizhusiwang。

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图源:commons.wikimedia.org

meizhoudalianperiplaneta americanashuyufeilianmufeilianke,yuanchanyufeizhoubeibu,zai17shijiqianhouyouchuanzhidaidaomeizhou,suihoudachenggezhongshunfengchekuosandaoshijiegedi。

meizhoudalianfanzhinengliqiang,cichongnengjinxingwuxingfanzhi。meizhoudalianshixingfuza,yaoshishujiheyiwu,tebiepianaitang、dianfendengyoujiwuzhi。qipaixiewuhetuiluodebiaopidaiyouguominyuan,keyiyinfapizhen、xiaochuandengbingzheng,hainengxiedaiduozhongzhibingjun,shijiachujirenleixuduochuanranxingjibingdezhongyaochuanbomeijie。

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图源:wikipedia

deguoxiaolianblattella germanicashuyufeilianmujilianke,yuanchannanya,suizhediqujianjingjimaoyierbianbuquanqiu。

hemeizhoudalianyiyang,deguoxiaolianyeshidingdingdamingdejiajuhaichong,qifenmiwukeshishiwubianzhi,daozhirenleizhongdu,haihuipohuaizhizhang、wenwu、dianzishebeideng,tongshixiedailijiganjun、jieheganjundengduozhongzhibingjunerweixierenleijiankang,yanzhongyingxiangrenleijuzhuhuanjingheshenghuozhiliang。

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图源:www.arrownj.com

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图源:entnemdept.ufl.edu

wuhuaguolajieceroplastes ruscishuyubanchimujieke,yuanchanyufeizhou,2012 nian,zaizhongguoguangdongshengmaomingshiderongshushanghesichuanshengpanzhihuashidedayerongshangshoucifaxian。

wuhuaguolajiejizhuduoyang,shishengquyuguangfan,chucixijizhuzhiyeduizhiwuzhigan、nenshao、yepian、guoshizaochengweihaiwai,haifenmidaliangmiluyoufameiwubing,shiduozhongyuanlinzhiwuhejingjiguoyuandezhongyaohaichong。

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图源:wikipedia

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图源:www.semanticscholar.org

zaoshiyingcarpomya vesuvianashuangchimushiyingke,yuanchanyuyindu,2007nianzaixinjiangtulufandiqufaxian。

zaoshiyingshizaoshuzhiwudezhongyaozhuguohaichong,yiyouchongzhushiguoroujinxingweihai,weihaishiguomiankexingchengbandianhechongkong,neibuzhushihouxingchengzhudao,bingyinqiluoguo,daozhiguoshitizaochengshuhefulan,yanzhongshikezaochengzaoguodejueshou。

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左:雌性 右:雄性

yezizhieopisina arenosellayouchengyeziheitoulvdaichong,shuyulinchimuzhieke,yuanchannanya,2013 nian,yezizhieshouciruqinwoguohainan,muqianyizaihainan、guangdong、guangxidingzhi,bingzaiduodibaofachengzai,duiwoguoyezi、binlangdengzonglvkezhiwuzaochengyanzhongweihai。

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图源:见水印

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图源:entnemdept.ufl.edu
松树蜂Sirex noctilio属于膜翅目树蜂科,原产于欧亚大陆和北非,2013年,在黑龙江首次发现。松树蜂主要为害松属、云杉属、冷杉属、落叶松属以及美国松属等种类。

songshufengyouchongdequshihezuanzhunengduijizhushumuzaochengyanzhongpohuai,qichanluanshizhurudedusuhegongshengjunnenggouzhubuxueruojizhudefangyunenglicongerjiasushushideshuairuoshenzhidaozhishumusiwang。

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图源:entnemdept.ufl.edu

zhongguowailairuqinwuzhongquanbumingdan wangzhiruxia:

diyipi:http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2003/content_62285.htm

dierpi:http://www.mee.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/bwj/201001/t20100126_184831.htm

disanpi:http://www.mee.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/bgg/201408/t20140828_288367.htm

disipi:http://www.mee.gov.cn/gkml/hbb/bgg/201612/t20161226_373636.htm


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