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你还在相信心脏是心形的?其实心脏是个莫比乌斯环,研究者们大受震撼
发布时间:2021-07-12     作者:七君   来源:把科学带回家   分享到:

心脏是什么形状?

许多人会说,这道题我会,不就是心形的嘛。

xinzangdezhenzhengxingtaishigeluoxuanxingdemobiwusihuan。

zailaiyidaoti:xinzangshizenmetiaodongde?

nikenenghuishuo,zheidaotiyehenjiandan,xiangchuiqiqiuneiyangyiguyisuodea。

abu,qishixinzangtiaodongshixiangyouyouqiuyiyangzuoyouxuanzhuan,erzheidianyeshixinzangdeluoxuanxingjuedingde。

errenleiyishidaozheiliangdian,zhiyouduanduanshushiniandeshijian。

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心脏并不是这样跳动的。图片来源:newstation

zaozai16shijijiuyourenfaxianlexinzangzhengtideyuanzhuixingtai,yejiushiwomenyiweidexinxing。danshi,weishenmexinxingdexinzangnengtiaodongni?xinzangxingtaihexinzanggongnengzhijiandeguanxizai500nianliyizhishigemi,yincizheigewentiyecengbeichengweijiepouxuedegeerdiesizhijie(gordian knot of anatomy),yejiushibaonanmeirenzhidaodaandeyisi。

houlaizai17shiji,yourenzaizheigeloudongshangdalegebuding,zheigebudingbanbenyechengle300nianlairenleiduixinzangdezhuliurenshi。zheigerenjiushiyingguoyishengweilian·hawei(william harvey)。haweifaxianlexunhuanxitong,jiangxinzanghefeijierulezhenggexunhuanxitongdebihuanzhong。

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循环系统之父威廉·哈维的肖像。图片来源:Royal College of Physicians Museum

haweirenwei,renleidexinzangshiyikuaitongzhidejirou,baohan4geqiangshi,xinjishousuoshipaichuxueye,fangsongshichongmanxueye。haweiyeyincibeishiweixunhuanxitongzhifu,tadejiaotiaoyebeiyidaidaiyishengchuancheng,xierulejiaokeshuzhong。buguo,haweiyiranwufajiekaijiepouxuedegeerdiesizhijie,tadexueshuozhongyeyouyixiemaodunzhichu。

dayuezai50nianqian,jiepouxuede“xinjie”zhongyubeiyiweixibanyayishengjiekai。

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Francisco Torrent-Guasp。图片来源:alchetron

francisco torrent-guasp zaixueshengshidaijiuduihaweixueshuozhongdeyixiewentigandaohuaiyi,birutabutaixiangxinxinzangjiroufangsongshixueyenengdaliangyongru。zai20shiji50niandai,torrent-guasp haishixibanyasalamankadaxueyixueyuandeyiweisinianjidexuesheng,neishiqitajiubuduanjiepougezhongdongwudexinzang。zai25niandeyanjiuhou,torrent-guasp youletupo。

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心脏是由一条心肌带扭成的。图片来源:David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA

tafaxian,xinzangzhenggejiuxiangyitiaojindaokuanmianyiyang,shiyigeyoujirougouchengdexiangpidai;gengyouqudeshi,zheigenjingdaojiroutiaoshiyiluoxuandexingtaizuzhichengxinzangde。houlaizheitiaoroudaijiubeichengweixinjidai(ventricular myocardial band)。

dajiakeyikanyixia torrent-guasp duiniuxindejiegou——

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图片来源:David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA

zheitiaojiroudaiyiluoxuanxiandefangshijiaochenglexinzang。yejiushishuo,xinzangshiyigemobiwusihuan,shiyigeniuchengle8zideluoxuan。

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心肌带以扭了3下的莫比乌斯环(A行中的3X)的形式构成了心脏(C)。图片来源:(DOI)10.1016/j.ejcts.2006.03.011

shijishang,zheizhongluoxuanjiegoubianbuzaiburudongwuheniaoleidexinzangzhong,erluoxuanxianbenshenzaidaziranzhonghenchangjian,beiqiao、songguo、xiangrikuidouhanyouluoxuanxian。

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心脏的螺旋线。图片来源:torrent-guasp.com

torrent-guasp renwei,renleixinzangdexingtaiyiweizhexinzangdetiaodongshicongxindi,yejiushixinzangzuishangbukaishide,xinjideshousuoyanzhexinjidaichuanbo,zuihourangxinzangdegegebuweiyicizhousuoqilai。

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心底和心尖。图片来源:life-science-edu.net

tadelilunheyihaweiweidaibiaodejingdianlilunyouhenduobutong。zaiguoqudelilunzhong,xinzangdeyundongshicongxinjianchuandaodaoxindide。danshixindechengxiangzhengjuxianshi,xinzangdeyundongqueshishiyuxindi,fuhe torrent-guasp deguandian。

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心肌带收缩信号的传导。图片来源:torrent-guasp.com

houlaiqitayanjiuzhefaxian,xinzangtiaodongdechushidianxinhaoshiyuyizhongteshudexibao——doufangjie(sinus node),zheixiexibaoweiyuxindideyouxinfang,zheigexinhaozaixinjidaishangyibubukuosan,shiqishousuo。zheixiezhengjuzaiciweitorrent-guasp tigonglezhichi。

torrent-guasp delingyigexinfaxianshi,xinzangdeluoxuanjiegoushidexinzangtiaodongshihuixiangyouyouqiuyiyangzuoyouxuanzhuan,erxinzangdezheizhongniuxuanrangtaxiangjiaomaojinyiyangzhudongbengruhebengchuxueye,erbushixianghaweililunmiaoshudeneiyangxiangqiqiuzhangsuoyiyangbeidongxiruxueye。

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心脏的扭转像绞毛巾一样泵入和泵出血液。图片来源:helicalheart.com

shijishang,zaozai16shiji,dafenqijiucengmiaoshuguoxinzangtiaodongshidexuanzhuan。buguo,torrent-guasp shishougebaxinzangdeluoxuanjiegouhetadexuanzhuanlianxidaoyiqideren。

zheixiexinfaxianyiweizhe,dangxinzangbugouqiangdadeshihou,xinzangdeluoxuanjiegoukaishibianxing,niuxuandechengdujianshao,bengruhebengchuxueyedexiaolvyehuixiajiang。

biruzai2019nian,yingshugelunbiyadaxuedexinzangxuejia robert shave hetongshifabiaozai《meiguoguojiakexueyuanyuankan》shangdeyixiangyanjiufaxian,renleixinzangdeniuzhuanchengdubirenleidejinqinheixingxingdedadeduo,shiheixingxingdeyue2bei;renleiruguoyundongliangshaoletangpinghuodeqingsong,xinzangdegefangmianjineng,biruniuzhuanchengdujiuhuijianshao,xiangheixingxingdexinzangzhuanbian,xinzangbenshenyehuiyouxiaovlianzhuanbianweiyoudayouyuan。

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和人类相比,黑猩猩的心脏(A)更像个球,而久坐不动的人的心脏

(B)比常从事耐力运动的人的心脏(C)更浑圆,更像黑猩猩的心脏。

图片来源:(DOI)10.1073/pnas.1906902116

yinweixinjidaidefaxian,1978nian torrent-guasp beixibanyasuofeiyawanghouhexibanyajiaoyubutimingnuobeieryixuejiang,xinjidaijiqijizhiyebeixierulejiepoutupujingdian anatomy, a regional atlas of the human body diwuban、clinically oriented anatomy diwubandengzhongduoyixuejiaocaizhong。

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 Anatomy, a Regional Atlas of the Human Body 中对心肌带的图示。

neime,weishenmexinzanghuishizheizhongluoxuanjiegouni?

torrent-guasp dejiashuoshi,renleixinzangdeyuanshixingtaishi10yinianqiandeyitiaochong。zheitiaochongmeiyouxianzaidexinshihexinfang,zhinengtongguorudongdefangshishitiyezaiquanshenliudong。

zai4yinianqian,yanhuachengyude“xiaochong”zhongyuyouleyike1.0banbendexinzang,zheigegulaodexinzangyouyigebengxuedexinshi。

zai2yinianqian,yuleidexinzangdedaolexitongshengji,yanhuaweipaxingdongwudexinzang,zheigejiaqiangbandexinzangchuxianlexinshihexinfang。zaihoulaicaichuxianburudongwuneizhongjiaodegengjiafuzadexinzang。

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从左到右:鱼(鲤鱼)、两栖动物(青蛙)、爬行动物(蛇)、鸟类(鸽子)和哺乳动物(兔子)的心脏比较。图片来源: Lucite Treasures

torrent-guasp zhichu,zairenleipeitaidefayuguochengzhongjiukeyiguanchadaozheizhongcongchongtidaoyuxinzang、daopaxingdongwuxinzang、zaidaoburudongwuxinzangdeyanbian。

biruzaipeitai20tiandadeshihou,renleixinzangkanqilaijiuxiangyitiaochong——

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30tiandadeshihou,xinzangkanqilaixiangyuxin——

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40tiandadeshihouxiangpaxingdongwuxin——

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zai50tiandadeshihoucaichengweinizuoxiongkoulineikehongxindeyangzi。

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也就是说,在胚胎头50天的发育中,人类心脏还原了它的演化史。

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图片来源:David Geffen School of Medicine UCLA

torrent-guasp renwei,renleixinzangyijiubaoliuzhexiaochongshidaidedongtai,haiyanxuzheleisichongtiyilangyilangdeyundongmoshi,yincicaizhanxianchuyanzhexinjidaideshousuoheshuzhangfangshi。dangranle,zheigejiashuohaixuyaogengduodezhengjuzhichi。

buguonengquedingdeshi,yaboappxindewenti,zhideyidaidaideyanjiuzhexianchuxinzang。


cankaoziliao:

http://docs.qq.com/doc/dvg9ftetbr1p3awru



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