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唐代长安百戏中的体育项目
发布时间:2021-07-12     作者:耿占军 杨文秀   来源:摘自《汉唐长安的乐舞与百戏》   分享到:

在开放的社会风气当中,加上统治者的大力倡导,唐代长安的体育活动出现了前所未有的繁荣局面。融入唐代百戏中的体育项目大致有摔跤、舞剑、射箭、举重、蹴鞠以及拔河等。

蹴鞠,唐代又称“蹴球”,这项古老的足球运动至此又有了很大的发展。一方面,在球的制作技术上有了质的改进。唐人徐坚在《初学记》中说:“古用毛纠结为之,今用皮,以胞为里,嘘气闭而蹴之。”此外,归氏子在以姓取笑皮日休时还说:“八片尖裁浪作球,火中了水中揉。一包闲气如长在,惹踢招拳卒未休。”可见,唐代的足球是用八片皮子经过火水揉处理后缝制而成,内以胞为里,可以充气,较之汉代的实心球要好多了。另一方面,在球门的设置上,汉代是在封闭的场地两端设置对称的半月形鞠室,而唐代则是“植两修竹,络网于上,为门以度球。球工分左右朋,以较胜负”。这和现代足球已经比较接近。

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敦煌藏经洞幡画相扑图

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拔河作为一项大规模的群体活动,因其既可以健身又颇具趣味的特点,不论在长安民间、宫廷还是军队之中都很受欢迎。当时,张说曾写了一篇《奉和圣制观拔河俗戏应制》诗,生动地描述了京城民众拔河的热闹场面:“今岁好拖钩,横街敞御楼。长绳系日住,贯索挽河流。斗力频催鼓,争都更上筹。春来百种戏,天意在宜秋。”唐中宗(684年、705-710年在位)时,还曾于清明这一天在梨园球场命侍臣为拔河之戏。当时七宰相二驸马为东朋,三宰相五将军为西朋,东朋贵人多,西朋认为不公平,要求重新划分,但中宗没有同意。最后,西朋果然输了,仆射韦巨源、少师唐休因年老,随绳而倒,很长时间都未能起来。中宗当时非常高兴,命左右将二人扶了起来。此外,唐玄宗(712-756年在位)也尝“御楼设此戏,挽者至千余人,喧呼动地,蕃客士庶观者,莫不震骇”。与前述纯粹娱乐性的拔河相比,这里显然又增加了向外炫耀国力的成分。亚搏App这一点,薛胜《拔河赋》说得就更为明白:“皇帝大夸胡人,以八方平泰,百戏繁会,令壮士千人,分为两队,名拔河于内,实耀武于外。”确实,那种“勇士毕登,嚣声振腾”的场面,“挥落日而横天阙,触不周而动地轴”的气势,“绳㩧扑而将断,犹匍匐而不回”的精神,连朝中大夫以上的官员也要“停眙而忘食”,又怎能不使“匈奴失箸,再拜称觞”呢?另据《新唐书·兵志》记载,在唐中央的六军宿卫中,“壮者为角抵、拔河、翘木、扛铁之戏”。说明拔河这项活动在军中也很流行。

虽然拔河具有比试气力的目的,但却并非男子汉的专利。景龙三年(709年),唐中宗李显就曾“幸玄武门,与近臣观宫女拔河”。说明唐代的妇女们也很喜欢这项活动,时亦为之。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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