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中国南方喀斯特
发布时间:2021-07-09     作者:单鹏飞   来源:中科院地质地球所   分享到:

kasite(karst)yicilaiziyusiluowenniyayisitelabandaodekasitegaoyuan(yanshendaoyidalidongbeibu,danjuedabufenweiyusiluowenniyajingnei),dangdichengqiweikras,yiweiyanshiluoludedifang。zheiyezhijiedianchulekasitedimaodetezheng。

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云南石林中裸露的岩石

woguozaidierjiezhongguoyanrong(kasite)xueshuhuiyi(1966nian)shangjiang“kasite”yicigaiwei“yanrong”,yanrongyicizeshigengjiazhiguandibiaodakasitedexingchengyuanyin:yanshibeishuirongjiehousuoxingchengdedizhixianxiang。

kasitedimao(karst landform),shijuyourongshilideshuiduikerongxingyanshijinxingrongshidengzuoyongsuoxingchengdedibiaohedixiaxingtaidezongcheng。churongshizuoyongyiwai,haibaokuoliushuidechongshi、qianshi,yijitanxiandengjixieqinshiguocheng。[1]

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喀斯特地貌示意图

kasitedimaokefenweidibiaokasitehedixiakasite(kasitedimaoleibiehuafenyinweifenleibiaozhunbutongsuoyihaicunzaiqitahuafenfangfa)。dibiaokasitedaibiaoxingtaiyou:shiya、shilin、luoshuidong、fenglin、gaihuaduijideng。dixiakasitedaibiaoxingtaiyou:rongdong、shisun、shizhongru、shizhudeng。

介绍完了什么叫喀斯特地貌,那么这种外形奇特且令人震撼的地貌是怎么形成的呢?

 喀斯特地貌的形成如果用最简单的模型来概括的话可以说是水对岩石的溶解作用。

womenzaihuaxuekexueguo:

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dangshuizhonghanyouyidingliangdeeryanghuatanshi,kexingchengtansuan,ertansuandianlichulaideqinglizikeyirongjiebufenyirongjiedeyanshi(shihuiyan、baiyunyan、shigaoyandeng)。dangbiaomiandeyanshibeiliushuirongjiedaizouzhihou,jiuhuixingchengshiyaheshilin,suizheliushuirongshizuoyongdebuduanjiaqiang,goucaobuduanxiangdixiaqinshi,bianxingchengrongdongheanhe。erwomenshangmiandehuaxuefangchengshishikenide,dangshuiyukongqizhongeryanghuatanjianshao,tansuanhanliangyijianshao,tansuangaijiangfashengchendian,keyizairongdongneixingchengzhongrushi、shisunheshizhudeng。

zhongguokasitedimaofenbuguangfan,leixingduoyang,zhuyaojizhongzaiyunguigaoyuanhesichuanxinanbu。zheixiediqufayufengfudeshihuiyan、baiyunyan、shigaoyandengyirongjiedeyanshi,youyudiqudeweiduhelishiqihoubianhuashidezheixiedifangqihoushirun,jiangshuiliangda,dibiaoliushuiwending,liushuixiashenzuoyonglianxu,bingqieyoufengfujiangshuishideliushuidedaogengxinheyouxiaobuchong。

jintianjidajiajieshaodeqigedifangshizuowei“zhongguonanfangkasite”ruxuan《shijieyichanminglu》dejingdian,zhongguonanfangkasiteshishijieshangzuizhuangguandeshiredai-yaredaikasitejingguanzhiyi。dangranchulejiexialaiyaojieshaodejigejingdian,guoneihaishiyouhenduoqitazhideyikandekasitedimaojingqu,yihouyoujihuizaijidajiajieshaola。

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中国南方喀斯特分布图,图片来源:中国地质科学院岩溶地质研究所

云南石林

shilinshijiedizhigongyuanweiyuyunnanshengkunmingshishilinyizuzizhixianjingnei,juyunnanshengshoufukunmingshizhongxin78qianmi,haiba1600mi~2100mi,nianpingjunwenduyue16℃,sijiruchun,dongwuyanhan,xiawukushu。dizhigongyuanzhuyaoyouda、xiaoshilin(lizijingshilin),naigushilin,zhiyundong,zhanghu,dadieshuidengjingquzucheng。

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云南石林世界地质公园

shilindizhigongyuanzhanxianleduoyanghuadekasitexingtai,yongyouwanzhengdeshilinyanrongdimaoxilie、yanrongdongxuedimao,chucizhiwaihaiyoubushaozhenguidebaohudongwu、zhiwu。youjihuidehuayidingyaoquganshouyixiashilinzhimeiya。

贵州荔波

荔波县位于贵州省东南部,属于贵州高原和广西盆地过渡地带。典型的喀斯特形态是锥状的峰丛喀斯特和峰林喀斯特有序排列。荔波喀斯特森林生态系统具有显著的生物多样性,包含众多特有和濒危动植物及其栖息地。荔波境内的茂兰国家级自然保护区保存着世界上面积最大的亚热带喀斯特原始森林;樟江国家级风景名胜区,有小七孔景区、大七孔景区、水春河景区,其沿河风光带青山绿树,农田村落,展现了美丽的田园风光。 

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贵州茂兰森林自然保护区

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小七孔

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樟江

重庆武隆

武隆区位于重庆市的东南部,属亚热带季风性湿润气候,雨量充沛,日照不足,湿度较大,极端最高温度41.7℃,极端最低气温零下3.5℃。主要景区有芙蓉江、芙蓉洞、仙女山、天生三桥、龙水峡地缝等。其中芙蓉洞位于武隆区江口镇4千米处的芙蓉江畔,发育于寒武系和奥陶系碳酸盐岩中,以竖井众多,几乎包括了钟乳石类所有沉积类型,是中国列入世界自然遗产唯一的洞穴。

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天生三桥

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天坑 

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芙蓉江

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芙蓉江上通往芙蓉洞的缆车

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芙蓉洞

广西桂林

“人们都说:“桂林山水甲天下。”我们乘着木船,荡舟漓江,来观赏桂林的山水“。这篇出现在小学课本中的陈淼的《桂林山水》给我留下了深刻的印象,因为作者的描写和课文中的配图让我对桂林山水心驰神往。桂林喀斯特世界自然遗产地位于中国广西东北部漓江流域,由漓江峡谷峰丛片区和葡萄峰林片区组成,大部分坐落在桂林市的阳朔县、雁山区境内。知名观光地点有漓江沿岸、兴坪古镇、遇龙河、象鼻山和银子岩洞等。桂林喀斯特石峰以塔形为主,并同时拥有面积相当的峰林和峰丛两种主要地貌类型。峰林连片分布面积广,分布密度大,并且石峰形态挺拔,高耸入云。桂林喀斯特是由于构造运动使地形形成高低差,在抬升区地势高位处发育入渗喀斯特,向峰丛演化。在相对下陷区或汇水区地势低位处,形成地表河系而发育流水喀斯特,向峰林平原发展。而这种模式下形成的桂林山水是大陆型塔状喀斯特的经典范例。

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峰丛-峰林形成机制示意图

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漓江风光

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桂林山水

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 阳朔五指山

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遇龙河

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象鼻山

heqianmianguizhoulibodedianxingzhuizhuangkasitexiangbi,tazhuangkasiteyoupoduweijiejin90°,xiangduigaodu50zhi100mizuoyoudeshifengzucheng;erzhuizhuangkasiteshiyouliangpoduicheng、pingjun45°、xiangduigaodushiyumidaobaiyumidezhuizhuangshifengzucheng。

贵州施秉

shibingxianweiyuguizhoushengzhongdongbu,yinqijingneiyoubashishanhebingshui,gudemingshibing。shibingkasiteyuntaishan、shanmuhejingqujishanmuheshuiyuanhanyangqubianjiezhonghe。buyongmihuo,zheigeyuntaishanzhishihehenandeneigeyuntaishanzhongmingle。yuntaishanfayubaiyunyankasite,zhufengtuanlunyanhaiba1066mi,tuqiyuqunshanzhijian,duchuyuyunxiaozhiban。zaishanmuhezhongjinxingpiaoliu,youruguanshangyifushanshuizhangjuan,tihuizhexianjuncuoedefengcongzhimei。jingquhechuanglianganshanluanzhongdie,qifengcuolie,gushugangyitingbadechayujinhuchuizhideqiaobizhishang,quanshuifenyunrubingjuanyuxiepiaoyunkongzhong。

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施秉云台山

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施秉风光

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舞阳河畔的镇远古镇


 重庆金佛山

weiyuzhongqingnanbunanchuanshijingnei,shudaloushanshanmai,youjinfo、qingba、bozhisanshanzucheng。jinfoshanzhufengfengchuilinghaiba2251mi,meinianjixueqizhangda4geyuezhijiu,yeshidaloushanmaizuigaofeng。zaixiaqiuwanqingdeshihou,luorixiehuibacengcengshanyayingrandejinbihuihuang,ruyizunzunjinshendafoshanshechuwandaoxiaguang,yichangzhuangguanermeili,“jinfoshan”yeyincierdeming。jinfoshanjilulegaohaibadekasitegaoyuanqiegeguocheng,bingqietabaohanlexinshengdaiyilai,gaidiqujianxiexingtaishengheyanrongzuoyongdezhengju,jinfoshanshitaiyuankasitezuidianxingdequyu。 

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金佛山

 广西环江

huanjiangmaonanzuzizhixianlishuyuweiyuguangxixibeibudehechishi。huanjiangkasitezhuyaobaohanmulunguojiajiziranbaohuqu,yulibokasitetianranlianchengyiti,tedianshibaocunleconggaoyuankasitezhujianguodudaodishanqiulingkasitegouchengdewanzhengxingtaipuxi。chulemulunziranbaohuqu,wenyatiankengqun、ruilianglongxianyanheniujiaozhaipubuqundoushigaidiquyoumingde、zhideyiqudekasitedimaoyoulandian。huanjiangkasitezuoweilibokasitedetuozhan,duilibozhuizhuangkasitedimaodefayu、yanhuajifenbudewanzhengxingzuochuzhongyaobuchong,qijianzhanbulefengcong、fenglin、wadi、gudi、dongxuedengleixingdekasitejingguan。

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 木论国家自然保护区 

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 环江风光

kandaozheili,kuaikuaikuai,xindongburuxingdong,kuaichuquguanshangtiyanzuguodedahaoheshanba!



[1]wuguanghe,wangnaiang,hushuangxi,deng.zirandilixue(disiban)[m].beijing:gaodengjiaoyuchubanshe,2008:275-279.

[2]zhuxuewen. guilinyanrongdimaoyudongxueyanjiu. vol. 5. dizhichubanshe, 1988.

wenzhongtupianjunlaiziyuwangluohetuchongchuangyi。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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