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450年不降解,乱丢弃口罩危害到底有多大?
发布时间:2021-07-09     作者:   来源:科普中国-科普融合创作与传播   分享到:

  yiqingsinvefanfu,daikouzhaochumenyijingbianchengleyizhongbaohutarenhezijideshenghuoxiguan,dan“yinhuan”yesuizhierlai……suiyidiuqidekouzhaohuojiangyinfayichang“huanbaozhanyi”! 

  

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  beidiuqidekouzhao (tupianlaiyuan:veertuku)


  口罩可不是简单的布,而是塑料制品 

  yiyongwaikekouzhaozhaotiyouneiwailiangcengwufangbujiazhongjianyicengrongpenbuzucheng,qiwaicengjuyoufangfeimozuoyong,zhongjiancengqiguolvzuoyong,neicengzhuyaoshixishoupeidaizheshifangchudeyetiheshiqi。 

  

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  yiyongkouzhaodechangyongjiegou(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian1)


  wufangbuherongpenbudoushuyufeizhizaobu,yuanliaoshijubingxizhuanyongshuzhi,shiyouchuyurongrongzhuangtaixiadejuhewu,jingtedinggongyipensierchengxianwei,erhoujingrenianhehuozhezishennianhejiaguercheng。 

  rongpenbushikouzhaode“xinzang”,yougaorongrongzhishudejubingxizhicheng,xianweiyegengxi。zhijingwei0.1-2weimidejubingxixianweizhichengderongpenbukongxilvgao、touqixingnenghao、guolvzulidi。rongpenbujingguozhujichulikeshixianweidaidianhe,dangbaohanbingdudefeimokaojinrongpenbushi,huibeijingdianxifuzaibiaomian,congerdadaofanghudemude。 

  

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  rongpenbuxianweijiegou(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian2)


  口罩随意丢弃危害大 

  muqian,renleishehuigaoduyilaisuliao,baokuojubingxizaineidesuliaozhipinchongchizheshenghuodefangfangmianmian。jubaodao,meinianyouchaoguobabaiwandundesuliaolajijinruhaiyang,ludishangkejiandebaisewurangengshibibijieshi。 

  zaiyuxinguanbingdukangzhengdeqijian,kouzhao、fanghufu、shoutaodengyiliaoyongpinshiyongliangdouzeng。zaiyiqingqijian,anzhaomeirenmeitianshiyongyigekouzhaojinxinggusuan,quanqiumeiyuejiangchansheng1290yigefeiqikouzhao。ruguokouzhaobeisuiyidiuqizaiziranhuanjingzhong,kenengxuyaojibainiancainengbeijiangjie。bujinruci,tamenhaihuiduihuanjing、dongwushenzhirenleizishendailaizhangqiyingxiang。yinweiwaixingheshuimuxiangsi,haiyangzhongpiaofudekouzhaohuibeiqitashengwuwushi。2020nian9yue,renmenzaibaxihaitanshangjiucengfaxianyijuqieshiti,jiepouhouzaiqiweizhongfaxianleyizhikouzhao。 

  

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  weizhongyouyizhikouzhaodeqie(tupianlaiyuan:cgtn)


  suliaowurandeweihaiyuanbuzhizheixie,zaiguangzhao、hailangchongji、qinshi、fenghuadengwaijiezuoyongxia,suliaozhipinhuibeifenjiechengxixiaodaorenyanwufafenbiandeweisuliao,erweisuliaoduihaiyang、danshui、ludidengshengtaihuanjingdeyingxiangtongyangburongxiaoqu。 

  微塑料虽小,危害却很大 

  cengjingwomenrenweitiankongzhongmeiyoupiaozhebaisesuliaodai,shuimianshangmeiyousuibodangyangdeyinliaoping,shiwomenzhilisuliaowuranchengguodemingzheng。dangwomenduisuliaowuranderenshiyuelaiyueshenru,neixiekanbudaoweihaizhujianfuxianyuyanqian。 

  shuitizhongdeweisuliaohuibeifuyoudongwudengsheru,suihouhuisuishiwulianjinruyushentizhong,daozhitamenfayuchihuan,bingqiexingweiyichang。erchuyushiwuliandingduanderenlei,shiyonghanyouweisuliaodedongwuhou,huishiqizairentizhongjinyibufuji。 

  

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  yuchilesuliaolaji,renchileyu,xingchengshengwujilei(tupianlaiyuan:theoceancleanup)


  weisuliaozaihuanjingzhongfenbuzhiguangfankenengyuanchaowomendexiangxiang。2019nian,meiguosikelipusihaiyangyanjiusuodexuezheduishengbabalayananyue580mishendehaidichenjiwuyanxinjinxingfenxi,zaiqizhongfaxianledaliangweisuliao,baokuoxianwei、suipian、kelideng。 

  

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  haidichenjiwuzhongdesuliaowuranwu(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian5)


  laizijianadahaiyangbaoyuxiehuiheyingshugelunbiyadaxuedeyanjiurenyuanzaibeijiyefaxianlejuzhileiweisuliaoxianwei,qizhongdaliangdexianweitongguobeidaxiyangjinrubeiji。 

  wulunshifangzhi、xiyifeishuizhijiepaifangchudeweisuliaoxianwei,haishisuiyangliuzhouyouguochengzhongbeihuanjingfenjieerchengdeweisuliao,tamenduibeijideqinraoyijingxianeryijian。 

  

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  weisuliaoxiangbeibingyangdefuji(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian6)


  

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  zhufengshangdeweisuliao(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian7)


  weisuliao“shangtianrudi”debenlingyijinglingwomenchengmu,erzuijinyixiangyaboappnongzuowuduiweisuliaodexishoudeyanjiuzegengrangrenjieshe。zhongkeyuanyantaihaiandaiyanjiusuodeyanjiutuanduifaxian,zuoweimoxingzuowudexiaomaiheshengcaidegen、jing、yezhongjundouhanyoucongfeishuizhongxishoudeweisuliaochengfen。 

  zhiwubiaopikongxixiangduijiaoda,weisuliaoburongyijinru,danshizaizhiwuxinshengcegendebianyuan,youyixiebuqiyandexiafeng,shiweisuliaojinruzhiwuderukou。suihouzaizhengtengzuoyongdequdongxia,weisuliaokeliconggenbeiyunsongdaoyazhong。 

  youyanjiubiaoming,quanqiuyouyue50%derentineihanyouweisuliao,huxi、yinshui、jinshi,doukenengjiangweisuliaosherurenti。suiranweisuliaoduirentijiankangdeyingxiangshangbumingque,danshiweisuliaodewuranwentiyijingpozaimeijie。 

  不怕不怕,办法总比困难多 

  zhiyaoyoukunnan,jiuhuiyoujiejuefangfa。renmencengzhaodaoyongsuliaodaitixiangyadefangfa,yibaohudaxiangmianyubeibusha。rujin,dangsuliaowuranrijianweijishi,womenyezaibuduanxunzhaojiejuedebanfa。 

  mianduirijianweijidesuliaowuran,kejiweihuanjingdebaohutigonglexindekeneng。zhenduikouzhaorongpenbudewenti,yanjiurenyuanshejihechenglekeshengwujiangjiedegaixingjujiersuan/duibenerjiasuandingerchunzhirongpenliao,xincailiaozaibaozhengguolvxiaoguodetongshi,hainengjianshaofeiqikouzhaoduihuanjingdewuran。 

  chucizhiwai,yanjiuxuezhehaizaiziranjiezhongxundaolesuliaodetiandi。liru,keyixiaohuajuduibenerjiasuanyierchunzhi(pet)dexijun(ideonella sakaiensis),youzhuyujiangjiejuanzhi(pu)detabinqumeijun(aspergillus tubingensis),jujiaohejinshijuyixi(pe)bomodelachong(yindugumingyouchong)deng。 

  

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  keyitunshijuyixibomodelachong(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian9)


  zuijin,xibanyabasailuoneidaxuedeyanjiurenyuanzai《kexuebaogao》shangfabiaodeyixiangyanjiutichu,keyiliyonghaicaochangqingchuhaiyangzhongdesuliaolaji。zuoweiwendaiwuzhong,haicao(p. oceanica)zaiqiutianluoye,qiyeqiaodengcanhaiduijizaifujindehaitanshang。yeqiaozhongbaohandemuzhixianweichanraochengqiu,beichengweihaicaoxianweiqiu,tamennengbuhuosuliaowuranwu,bingjiangqidaidaoanbian。meigongjinhaicaoxianweiqiuzhongfaxiandesuliaozhipinduoda1470ge,juciguji,dizhonghaihaicaochangdexianweiqiumeiniannengbuhuo8.67yigesuliaowuranwu。 

  suiranbeihaicaoqiudaidaoanbiandesuliaowuranwuhouxuhaixuyaodaliangchulitouru,dantamenyijingbangmangjiejuelehenduowenti。 

  

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  haicaoqiushoujidesuliaoxianwei(tupianlaiyuan:cankaowenxian10)


  weisuliaowuranxianzhuangsuiranyanjun,danshiwulunshirenleihaishiziran,douzaiyongjijidetaidujinxingkangzheng。womennengzuodaodeweixiaogaibianyeyouhenduo,congshaoyongyigesuliaodaidaozhengquediuqikouzhao,congzhengquerenshiweisuliaodaojijibukonghuangdexintai。 

  suiranwomenhennanzuodaowanquanbuyongsuliaozhipin,danwomenkeyigenghuanbaodichulitamen。 


  cankaowenxian: 

  1. yiyongkouzhaoguolvcailiaodeyanjiujinzhan。 

  2. jubingxicailiaozaiyiyongkouzhaozhongdeyingyong。 

   3. lost at sea: where is all the plastic? science.sciencemag.org/content/304/5672/838  4. theoceancleanup.com/great-pacific-garbage-patch/  5. multidecadal increase in plastic particles in coastal ocean sediments. advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/9/eaax0587.  6. pervasive distribution of polyester fibres in the arctic ocean is driven by atlantic inputs. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20347-1.  7. reaching new heights in plastic pollution—preliminary findings of microplastics on mount everest. doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2020.10.020  8. effective uptake of submicrometre plastics by crop plants via a crack-entry mode. doi.org/10.1038/s41893-020-0567-9.  9. evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms. pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es504038a  10. seagrasses provide a novel ecosystem service by trapping marine plastics. doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79370-3. 


  出品:科普中国 

  zhizuo:vivian (beijinghangkonghangtiandaxue) 

  jianzhi:zhongguokexueyuanjisuanjiwangluoxinxizhongxin 

【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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