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竺可桢:开气象学之始,传国士之风
发布时间:2021-07-09     作者:   来源:科普中国-科普融合创作与传播   分享到:

  “我们从古以来,就有埋头苦干的人,有拼命硬干的人,有为民请命的人,有舍身求法的人,……这就是中国的脊梁。”

  ——luxun

  1918niandeqiutian,yisoulaizimeiguodelunchuanzaishanghaikaoan,yiweishencaishouxiaodeliuxueshengzouxiashanban,huaichuaizheshangbaoguojia、xiaanlishudexingguomengxiang,zhengshitashanglezheipiankuobie8niandezhonghuadadi。

  ta,jiushizhukezhen。

  

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  nianqingshidezhukezhen(tupianlaiyuan:《zhukezhenriji》)


  zhukezhenchushengyuzhejiangshaoxingdongguanzhen(jinshuzhejiangshengshaoxingshishangyuqu)deyigexiaoshangrenjiating。1910nian,zai“gengzipeikuan”dezizhuxia,dierpijingguocengcengxuanbadezhongguoliuxueshengyuanduzhongyang,zhukezhenbianshiqizhongzhiyi。

  chuzhimeiguo,zhukezhenhaobuyouyudijinruyilinuodaxuegongdunongxue,bishi“zhongguoyinongyeliguo”,tarenweizheishihuibaozuguodeweiyixuanze。raner,shouxianyubutongdezirangengzhongtiaojianyunongyetizhi,meiguodenongyejishubingbufada。yushi,zhukezhenzhuanzhihafodaxuedilixi,kaishigongduyunongyeguanxizuijinmidexueke——qixiangxue。

  zuoweidierpiyuanduzhongyangjinxiudeliuxueshengzhiyi,zhukezhenzaihuiguohou,bianlakailetashenwei“zhongguojindaidilixueyuqixiangxuekaituozhe”yu“zhedamingxiaodianjiren”dehuihuangrensheng。

  congshouzhiyurendaozhiyuren——zhongguoqixiangshiyededianjiren

  “weijiangerbutongtianwen,bushidili……shiyongcaiye。”duiguojiaeryan,yongyoudulizizhudeqixiangguanceyudilixinxishuju,shishejidaojunshi、jingji、naizhiyuguojiafazhandetoudengdashi。

  1918niandemeiguo,yijingzaiqibentudajianqi200yuzuoqihoujiancesuo。erweiyudayangbiandezhongguo,rengchuyubanfengjiandehunluanzhuangtai,jinyongyouxianggangyushanghaixujiahuideliangzuoqihoujiancesuo,qiejunzaiwaiguorendekongzhizhixia。weiyiyouzhongguorenguanlidezhongyangguanxiangtai,queshiyipianpoluo,bingjiangzhukezhenjuzhimenwai。zhidao1930nian,zhongguotianqiyubaodezhuquanrenglaolaodibachizaiwaiguorenshouzhong。

  yucitongshi,ribenrenzhengzaishenruerxizhidiyanjiuzhezhongguodeqixiang、diliyushuiwenxinxi,yiweihouxudeqinhuazhanzhengtigongzhoumierxiangxidezhanzhengqingbaozhichiyuruqinyaodianbiaozhu。zheiyiqie,rangzhukezhenmaogusongranyusuanchutongxin。tayishidao,zhongguorenbixuyongyouzijideqixiangxueyubao,zheibujinyouliyuguojiadenongyeshengchan,yeyuzhanzhengzhanbeimiqiexiangguan。

  suihou,zhukezhenzainanjinggaodengshifanxuexiaorenzhi,bingzhuchijianlilezhongguodiyigedilixuexi。1928nian,zhukezhenzaicaiyuanpeidezhichixia,zainanjingbeijigejianlizhongyangyanjiuyuanqixiangyanjiusuo,bingrensuozhang。1930nianyuandan,qixiangyanjiusuohuizhiwanchengdongyatianqitu,kaishifabutianqiyubaoyutaifengyubao,bingjiangsheshiduguidingweizhongguotianqiwendudebiaozhundanwei。zici,zhongguorenzhongyulakaizhudaozhongguoqixiangshiyedeweimu。

  

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  nanjingbeijigeyuzhukezhentongxiang(tupianlaiyuan:zuozhe)


  zaicihoude8nianli,zhukezhentabianzhongguo,zhuchijianlile40duogeqixiangzhanhe100duogeyuliangceliangzhan,weizhongguoqixiangshiyedeqibudaxiajianshidejichu。zuoweizhongguoxiandaiqixiangkexuededianjiren,zhukezhenxianshengyaboappqihoubianhuadeyixiliekaichuangxingsikaoyuyanjiu,weirujinrenmenrenshiquanqiubiannuanjinchengzheiyishijiexingdezhongdakexuewenti,tigonglezhongyaocankaoyuyiju。

  congzhedaxiaozhangdao“zhedabaomu”——bainianmingxiaojiuciqibu

  daxue,shiyigeguojiadeweilai;erxiaozhang,shiyisuodaxuedelinghun。

  1936nian,huaichuaizheduizhongguojiaoyudereai,zaizhejiangdaxuebaifeijuxingshi,zhukezhenchurenzhedaxiaozhang。taxiangjiangjieshitichusantiaoyaoqiu,yishidaxuecaiyuanbunengzhongduan,ershixiaozhangyaoyouyongrendequanquan,sanshixiaozhangzhizuobannian。

  raner,danrenzhedaxiaozhangdezhongdan,zhukezhenzheiyitiao,jiushizhengzheng13nian。

  zhukezhenweizhedadejiansheqingzhulequanbuxinxue。zaidanrenxiaozhangqijian,tatichu“qiushi”erziweixiaoxun,pinqingbingbaorongleyidapiguoneideyouxiujiaoshi,lirumayifu、shuxingbei、yeliangfu、subuqingdengren。tongshi,zhukezhenduizhedadeshengyuanmingquetichuyangeyaoqiu,jishishizhejiangshengzhuxidenver、canyihuizhuxideerzi,fenshubudabiaoyebuyuyiluqu。jiulianzhukezhendezhangziyebuliwai,fenshuweinengdabiao,zhedayebuyuluqu。

  zaikangzhanqijian,weilebimianxianrurikoudetietiqinrao,1937nianshi,zhukezhendailingzhedayiqianmingshisheng,zoushanglexiqianliuwangzhilu。lijing“zhedasiqian”,zuizhongdidaguizhouzunyi。zailiuwangqijian,zhedashizhongjianchizhegaozhiliangdeshoukeyushiyan,binglvxiantuixingshijieliuxingde“daoshizhi”。kangzhanshenglihou,zhukezhenjixuzhichizhedashishengfanduiducai、zhengquminzhuaiguoyundongdexingwei,xiaoneidekexue、minzhuhejinbusixiangshizhongzhanshangfeng,yizhiguomindangtewumazhedashi“gongchandangdezujie”。zhidao1949nian4yue,zhukezhenjujueleyuguomindangyitongchezhitaiwandeyaoqiu,bingnaixindengdairenminjiefangjundedaolai。

  

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  zhulizaizhejiangdaxuedezhukezhentongxiang(tupianlaiyuan:zhejiangdaxueguanwang,


  zhukezhen60xusuishengrishi,zhedaxueshengweiqisongshangyimianjinqi,shangshu“zhedabaomu”sigedazi,yibiaodaduizheiweilaoxiaozhangdezunjing。zaizhukezhendanrenzhejiangdaxuexiaozhangde13nianjian,zhedacongyuanlaiwen、li、gong、nongsangexueyuan 16gexi,fazhanzhihoulaidewen、li、gong、nong、shi、fa、yiqigexueyuan25gexihe10geyanjiusuo,jiaoshourenshuyou70yumingfazhandao200yuming,zaixiaorenshuyeyou500yurenzengzhi2000qianyuren,bingluxupeiyangle3500yuweiguojiagaojirencai(liru,qianrenyuan、chengkaijia、hujimin、yeduzheng、guchaohaodeng),weixinzhongguokexuejijiaoyushiyetigongleyidapiguganliliang。

  cong“kechixufazhan”dao“zhukezhenquxian”——xinzhongguodeqianniandaji

  1949nian10yue1ri,zhukezhenzaitiananmenchengloushang,jianzhenglekaiguodadian。16tianhou,zhukezhenbeirenmingweizhongguokexueyuanfuyuanzhang,chengdanlelingdaoquanguokexueshiyeguihuahefazhandezhongren。zaizhukezhendezuzhixia,zhongkeyuandiliyanjiusuoxuanbuchengli。suihou,zhukezhenxianhouzuzhileduocidaxingzonghekaochahuodong,zujibianbuquanguogedi,bingwanchenglehuafenzhongguoziranquhua、zhidingguojiadadituandenggongzuo。1962nian6yue,72suigaolingdezhukezhen,jiaruzhongguogongchandang。

  zaiquanguogedijinxingzirandilikaochadeguochengzhong,zhukezhentongxindifaxian,woguoshangyouhuangtugaoyuandiqudeshuituliushiyanzhong;tongshitongguozaibeijingduichentudeguancha,zhukezhenfaxianwoguobeifangdekongqizhiliangyezaikuaisuehua。“kechixufazhanshizhongguodeqianniandaji”,zuoweizheiyisixiangdexianxingzhe,zhukezhenshizhongcongkexueshijiao,guanzhuzhezhongguoderenkou、ziyuanhehuanjingwenti。tatichule“tuinonghaimu、tuinonghailin”dezhuzhang,bingzhichuwoguoyingdang“kexueerheli”di“xiangshamojinjun”,laijiejuezhongguobeifangdeshamohuakuozhangwenti。zheibujinshidui“kechixufazhan”liniandeqianzhanxingtansuo,yeweijinwushinianjianwoguoziranziyuandekaochagongzuozhiminglezhuyaoyanjiufangxiang。

  

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  habahuguojiajiziranbaohuquneidefanghulinjianshe(tupianlaiyuan:xinhuashe)


  zi1921nianhuiguoyilai,zhukezhenmeitianguanchabingzairijizhongjiluwuhouhetianqi,bingyu1963nianchubanle《wuhouxue》yishu,weizhongguonongyefazhanzuochuzhongyaogongxian。wannianshiqi,tayouzaijizhonglebishengyanjiuchengguode《zhongguojinwuqiannianlaiqihoubianqiandechubuyanjiu》yiwenzhongtichule“zhukezhenquxian”degainian,jiangzhongguoqiannianyilaidechaodaigengdieyuqiwenbianhuajieheqilai,zheiyinqileshijiehongdong,binglingxianyuxifangxuezhede“gelinglandaoquxian”jishinian。

  

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  zhukezhenquxianyugelinglandaoquxian(tupianlaiyuan:cctv10)


  1974nian2yue6ri,zhukezhenzairijibenzhongxiexialetaduizhongguowuhoudezuihouyiciguancha:“yuqi,yinzhuanduoyun,dongfeng1dao2ji,zuigaolingxiayidu,zuidilingxiaqidu”。ciri,zhukezhenbingshiyubeijing,xiangnian83sui。

  jieyu

  zhukezhenxiansheng,shizhongguokexueyuanyuanshi,zhongguogongchandangdangyuan,zhongguojindaiqixiangxuejia、dilixuejia、jiaoyujia,yeshizhongguojindaidilixueheqixiangxuededianjiren。talijingshidaibianqian、yuxinzhongguoyitongchengzhang。

  zongguanzhukezhenxianshengjingcaidekexuerensheng,womenyouzhongdijingpeitachonggaodekexuejingshen、qiushidekexuetaiduyuduizhongguokexueshiyedejudagongxian。zhengshizhukezhenxianshengyishengduikexueqiangguojingshendezhizhezhuiqiu,caidiandinglerujinzhongguodilixueyuqixiangxueyanjiudefanrongjingxiang。

  renwuxiaochuan

  zhukezhen(1890.3.7-1974.2.7),zioufang,zhejiangshengshaoxingxiandongguanzhen(jinshuzhejiangshengshaoxingshishangyuqu)ren。zhongguokexueyuanyuanshi,zhongguogongchandangdangyuan,zhongguojindaiqixiangxuejia、dilixuejia、jiaoyujia,yeshizhongguojindaidilixueheqixiangxuededianjiren。1928nian,zhukezhenchuangbanzhongyangyanjiuyuanqixiangyanjiusuo,rennanjingqixiangyanjiusuosuozhang。1936nianrenzhejiangdaxuexiaozhang。xinzhongguochenglihou,cengrenzhongguokexueyuanfuyuanzhang,quanguokexiefuzhuxi,zhongguodilixuehuilishizhang,zhongguoqixiangxuehuilishizhang,zhongguozirankexueshiweiyuanhuizhuren,zhongguokexueyuanshengwuxuedixuebuweiyuan。zaiqihoubianqian、wuhouxue、nongyeqihou、ziranquhuahekexueshidengfangmianyoujiechugongxian。

  chupin:kepuzhongguo

  zhizuo:zhiyaokepu

  jianzhi:zhongguokexueyuanjisuanjiwangluoxinxizhongxin

【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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