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核动力飞机技术积累成熟 为何至今未列装部队?
发布时间:2021-07-09     作者:   来源:科普中国   分享到:

       dangqian,jianchuanhehangtianyiyouzhuangbeicaiyonghefanyingduizuoweizhuyaodonglilaiyuan。erhangkonggongyequezaijuedaduoshuqingkuangxiarengranshiyonghuaxueranliao。genjumuqianxianyijixingcesuan,weileshihangkongqihuodejiaozhangdezhikongshijian,ranliaozhanhangkongqizongzhongliangyijingchaoguo30%,jidaxianzhilehangkongqiyingyoudexingnengshuipingfahui。

  yuchuantonghuashiranliaoxiangbi,hedonglizhuangzhibujinyongyoulilunshangjihuwuxiandexuhangnengli,erqiegongzuoshibuxuyaoyangqicanyu,yincibuhuishoudaoqiyazhiyue,weiyanzhidiqiuneiquanyudaodadehangkongqitigongleyuanlizhicheng。yezhengshijiyuhedonglibuxuyaoyangqideyuanli,hedonglifeixingqikeyizairenheyoudaqidehuanjingzhonggongzuo。yinweixuduoxingxingbiaomiandouyongyoubutongnongdudedaqiceng,suoyiruguowomenjintiankaishijiadaduihedonglifeixingqideyanzhitouru,neimezhongguozaiweilaijiangchengweidiwaixingxingtanceqilingyudexingyelingjunzhe。

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▲从美国NB-36H型核动力试验飞机上,可以看出在20世纪50年代,美苏对于核动力飞机的研究都集中在核反应堆为涡桨发动机提供动力阶段。

  hedonglifeixingqisuiranzhijinrengweibeicaiyong,danlilunjishujileiqueshifenchengshu。zaozai20shiji40niandai,hangkongjishulingxiandeguojiajiuyijingkaishilezaihangkonglingyucaiyonghedonglidekexingxingyanjiu。1942nian,meiguomanhadunjihuadangzhong,meiguokongjuntichuleyanzhiyongyoujihuwuxianxuhangnenglidehongzhajiyuyunshuji,“henengfeijifadongjijihua”youyudangshiwufaquanmianzhangwohefanyingduidegongzuozhuangtai,zaijiashangkeyanguanlifangshideluohou,zheixiangjihuazai1961nianbeizhongzhi。tongshiqi,zhuyaojishuqiangguozhengxiankaizhanhejubianshoukongyanjiu,suliancengchangshiguoshiyongxiaoxinghefanyingduituijin4taiwojiangfadongjideshejifangan,suiranfeijishifeichenggong,danyouyufangfushepingbicengdetijiguoda,xiangmuzuizhongxiama。yinci21shijiqian,ruhetishengshejidejincouxingjiangdihedonglifangfushepingbizhuangzhidezhiliangchicun,chengweihedonglifeixingqiyanjiudezhuyaofangxiang。

  jinru21shijihou,weilejianghejubianfanyingduijinkuaituiguangshiyong,hefanyingduideyueshujishuzhuyaofenweilianggeyanjiufangxiang,jiciyueshuheguanxingyueshuliangtiaojishuzhuxian。

  ciyueshuyebeijiaozuochixuxingjubian,shijiangheranliaobianchengshubaiwandudegaowendenglizijiang,bingyongteshuxingtaiqiangcichang,jiangdenglizitiyueshuzaiyouxiankongjianyinfahejubian,shifangjudanengliang,yongyufadianhuodonglituijin,muqianshijieshangzuixianjindejishuhaitingliuzaitaijiashiyan,jinweiyanzhengyuanlidekexingxing,haimeiyoujinrugongchengshejijieduan。

23.jpg

▲亚洲某核能技术强国研制的相关设备

  guanxingyueshujubianyoubeichengzuomaichongxingjubian,liyongjiguanghuozhelizishulaizhaoshebingyasuohanqingdetongweisudaochuanhunhecailiaodebawan,shengchengbiciyueshujubianshimiduyaogao1wanyibeidelizijiang,congerchanshengjubian。youyuzheizhongfanyingshijianfeichangkuai,wuxuqiangcichangshufu。danmuqianzheixiangjishuzhinengzaimianjiyuewei2gezuqiuchangdaxiaodeshiyanshineijinxingyuanlilunzheng,yuanmeiyoudaogongchengyangjijieduan。

  suizheshoukonghejubianjishudefazhan,luokexide·madinggongsisuoshudechouyougongchangyijingkaishijinxingjincouxingjubianfanyingduideshejigongzuo,caiyongciyueshujubianyuanli,bingcaiyongxinxingcichangsheji,chicunweizhijing2mi、gao4mideyuanzhuxing,diangonglv100zhaowa,kewei8wanhujiatingtigongshenghuoyongdian,shitongxingnengguanxingyueshujubianduideshifenzhiyi。luomagongsinenggoushixianxiaoxinghuadeguanjianzaiyuzaifanyingduineibucaiyongledutedeneizhitedingxingzhuangcichangguanzhuangsheji,bikailechuantonghejubianfanyingduishejizhongzhinengrongnayouxianshuliangdedenglizitidewenti。

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▲美国洛马公司研制的磁约束航空核反应堆结构原理示意图

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▲激光核聚变发动机原理图

  muqianshijieshangfazhanhangkongqihedonglixiaoxinghuadejishuhaiyoujigebutongfenzhi,zonghelaikan,xiaoxinghejubianzhuangzhilishiyonghaiyoujiaodajuli,tebieshizaidenglizitibaxingcheng、chuanshuyudianhuodengguanjianjishushanghaiyoudaitupo,wogerendejianyishijixujiaqianglilunyanjiudetouru,daiguanjianjishuyuanliyoumingxiantupohou,zaijinrujincouhuashejijieduan。congzhangyuanfazhankan,hedonglizhuangzhinenggoushixianzhanghangshifeixingqide“dongliziyou”,weihangkongdonglilingyudailaidianfuxingdegeming,zuizhongshifeijidehangcheng、zaihedengdafuzengjiashenzhinengshixianshutianbujianduandezhangshijiankongzhongfeixing。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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