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太阳系中最奇异的卫星有哪些?
发布时间:2021-07-08     作者:匀琳   来源:新浪科技   分享到:

  zaiwomendetaiyangxizhong,chuleshuixinghejinxingzhiwai,qitaxingxingdouyouyikehuoduoketianranweixing。diqiudeweixing,dangranjiushiwomenshuzhideyueliang,shiyigemeilierhuangliangdewushengmingshijie,yougulaodehuoshanhewushudezhuangjikengsuzaoercheng。jinguanyueliangshiwomenzuishuxidetianranweixing,dantaquebushizuiyouqudeweixing。waitaiyangxidemeiyikejudaxingxingdouyongyoudaliangdeweixing,qizhongxuduoweixingyuzhuxingxingtongshixingcheng,bingqiehezhuxingxingyiyang,yeshiyoufuhanbingdewuzhigoucheng。jinguanzheixieweixingyuanlitaiyangqiequeshaoyangguanghereliang,dantamenrengranhetamendezhuxingxingyiyangfengfuduocai。

W020210707401410389319.jpg

  zaizheili,womenjiangqichengqurenshiyixiazheixiezuiqiguaihezuilingrenxingfendeshenqishijie。youxieweixing,birumuweisi(yejiao“kalisituo”)hetuweiyi(“mimasi”),shushiyinianlaiyizhidongdeyanyanshishi,dantaikongdezhuangjizaizheixiexingqiubiaomianliuxialefeifandebahen。qitaweixing,birutuxingdemuyangquanweixingtuweishiba(“pan”)hetuweishiwu(“yatelasi”)yijihaiwangxingdeguduweixinghaiweier(“neilede”),zaitamendeyishengzhongdoushoudaoyuzhouweitiantixianghuxiyindeyingxiang。zuilingrenxingfendeshi,qizhongyouyixieqiyidexingqiushoudaozhuxingxingqiangdadechaoxilidejiare,yinfajuliehuodongjieduan,biruzheixiejuliehuodongcengsuzaoletianwangxingdefulankensitanweixingtianweiwu(“milanda”)。zaimouxieqingkuangxia,zheixieqiangdadechaoxilizhijinrengzaifahuizuoyong,chuangzaochumirendetianti,birubeishouzhemodemuweiyi(“aiao”)hebinglengdetuweier(“enkeladuosi”)。tuweierdepingjingwaibiaoxiashenzhikenenghaiyinzangzhetaiyangxizhongzuidademimi:waixingshengming。

  土卫二 

  zinasadekaxinihaotanceqizai2004niandidatuxingyilai,zheikezidaimeiliguanghuandexingxingdeneicengxiaoweixing——tuweier——yichengweizhenggetaiyangxizhongbeiyanjiuzuiduo、taolunyezuiduodexingqiuzhiyi。tuweierzuijinyicichumingshiyinweirenmenfaxianyoujudadeshuibingyuliuconggaiweixingdenanbanqiudeliefengpenshedaotaikongzhong,zheigexianxiangshuomingtuweierbobodebinglengwaiqiaozhixiayinzangzheyetaishui。

  zaikaxinihaodidazhiqian,zaoqizhaopianxianshizheikeweixingdebiaomianyichangguangliang,biaomiandeyunshikengfangfoshibeibingxuefugaiyiban。yushi,renmenmianbulehuaiyituweiershangmianshibushiyouyixieqiguaidehuodong。jinguanruci,kaxinihaozaifeilveshuibingyuliushipaishexiadeyuliuzhaopianwuyishiyigezhuangguandezhengju,zhengmingtuweierqueshishiyigehuoyuedeshijie。

  tuweierdezhijingwei504gongli,youyanshi/bingkuaizucheng。hetuxingxitongdexuduoweixingyiyang,tuweieryeyinggaizaijishiyinianqianjiushiyikebingdongdexingqiu。danshi,tuxinghegengdadeweixingtuweisi(“dienie”)zhijiandeyinlilajuchanshengdechaoxili,rangtuweierdeneibudeyibaochiwennuanhehuoyue,congershituweierchengweizaitaiyangxineixunzhaowaixingshengmingdezhuyaomubiao。

  dangdabufenshuibinghuiluobingfugaituweierdebiaomianshi,yibufenshuibingzairuoyinlizuoyongxiataolibingjinrutuxingguidao。zaizheili,shuibingshuzhankailai,xingchengyigetiantianquanzhuangdeehuan,jituxinghuanzuiwaicengyeshizuixishudeyihuan。

  木卫四 

  muweisishimuxingdesikejialilveweixingzhongjulimuxingzuiyaoyuandeyikeweixing,yeshitaiyangxizhongdisandaweixing,jinbishuixingxiaoyidian。muweisidemingqilaizitashitaiyangxizhongzaoshouzuimengliezhuangjidetianti;qiqiheidebiaomianbumanlenanyifenbiandeyunshikeng,zuishendeyunshikenglijihuyoudidixiadebingcengluolu,bingqiebiaomiansanbuzhemingliangde“penshe”suipian。

  muweisizaimuxingxitongzhongdeweizhidaozhileqibiaomiandaochudoushiyunshikeng。zheikejudaxingxingdeyinlidailaiqiangdadeyingxiang,raoluanlelveguomuxingdehuixingguidao,bingjingchangbalveguodehuixinglaxiangtamendemori。1994nian,xiumeike-liwei9haohuixingyumuxingxiangzhuang,shizuiweizhumingdeyicitiantizhuangjishijian。

  ermuxingdeyixiebijiaodadeweixingzezuirongyishoudaozhuangjideqianlian,zhibuguomuweisideqitaneicenglinju(shoudaodechaoxiliyingxianggengda)doujinglilejianggulaodeyunshikengmoqudedizhiguocheng。danshi,muweisidebiaomian,zaichaoguo45yiniandeshijianli,jibenshangbaochibubian,yushibianxingchenglekuayueyiwanniandeyunshikengcengdiejiaocuodezhuangguanjingxiang。

  艾卫 

  ainvxing(xiaoxingxing243)shiyikexiaoxingxing。tayeyouyikeweixing,jiaozuoaiwei(“dactyl”)。aiweiyanqizuizhangzhouchudezhijingzhiyou1.6gongli。ainvxingdeyinlibijiaoruo,yincibuhuoaiweidaozijiguidaoshangdekenengxingbuda。gengyoukenengdeshi,ainvxingheaiweitongshixingcheng,danzheizhongkenengxingyecunzaizhuduoyiwen。

  ainvxingshiyanvxingzudezhuyaochengyuan,zheigexiaoxingxingjiazuneiyouchaoguo300duokexiaoxingxing。yanvxingzuxiaoxingxingdouyouzhexiangsideguidao,renmenrenweitamenshizaidayue10yidao20yinianqiandeyicixiaoxingxingzhuangjixiaxingchengde。aiweikenengshizheicizhuangjichanshengdejiaoxiaocanhaidesuipian,zuihouluoruainvxingdeguidao。danzheiyecunzaiyigewenti——jisuanjimoxingxianshi,lingyikexiaoxingxingdezhuangjizuyijiangaiweicuihui。

  suoyi,aiweijiujingshiruhecunzaishiyiduoniandeni?

  yigelilunrenwei,yanvxingzukenengbikanqilaidegengnianqing,erainvxingshangdeyanzhongzhuangjikengyeshilaiziyuzuichudefenjieyinfadechongjifengbao。lingyigelilunrenwei,aiweicengzaoshouhuimiexingdezhuangji,danrunasafaxiandeneiyang,tayoujiangzijilahuileyuanyoudeguidao,zheihuoxuyejieshileaiweineijibuxunchangdeqiuxingxingzhuang。

  土卫八 

  tuweiba(“yiapotuosi”)youlianggeliyoukeyirangqijishenyuzuiqiyiweixingzhilie。diyigeliyouhenmingxian。1671nian,renmenfaxiantuweibashi,zhuyidaotadeyimianyaobilingyimianhunanxuduo。tuweibadeqianbanqiu,yejiushiraotuxingyunxingshishizhongmianxiangtuxingdeneiyimian,shishenzongsede,erbeimiandebanqiuzeshiqianhuise。yigejieshiqianhoubanqiuyansechayidezaoqililunrenwei,tuweibadeqianbanqiubeiweixiaoyunshizhuangjiwaicengxiaoweixingshichanshengdechenaisuofugai,suoyizheibanmiankanshangqugenghunan。

  danshi,kaxinihaopaishedezhaopianjiangshuleyigegengweifuzadegushi。daduoshuansewuzhisihulaizituweibadeneibu,shituweibabiaomianjiazachenaidebingtishenghuazhihoucanliuxialaidecuxie。qichu,laiziwaicengweixingdechenaizaituweibadeqianbanqiumanmanjilei,daozhizheibanmiandeyansejiashen,jierkaishixishoureliang,chanshengshenghuaxiaoying。

  tuweibadelingyigeshenmizhichushihuanraogaiweixingdechidaoji。tuweibadechidaojigaoyue13gongli,kuan20gongli。chidaojirangtuweibakanqilaishifendute,youdianxianghetaodeyangzi。chidaojidexingchengrengshiyigemi。youxielilunrenwei,henjiuyiqiantuweibadezizhuansuduyaobixianzaikuaixuduo,bingzaichidaofujinxingchenglongqi,zuihouliuxiawomenjintiankandaodechidaoji,erqitarenzerenweituweibashangcengjinghuanraozheyigehuanzhuangxitong,houlaihuanzhuangxitongbengtaerxingchenglerujindechidaoji。

  海卫二 

  haiweiershifaxiandedierkeraohaiwangxingyunxingdeweixing,haiweierdeshangbangliyoushiqijiduandeguidao。haiweieryuhaiwangxingdejulizai140wandao970wangonglizhijian。zheizhongguidaowangwangshibuhuodeweixingdedianxingtezheng。judawaixingxingdechaoqiangyinlihuijiangjingguodexiaoxingxinghehuixingjuanrupianxinlvjigaodeguidao。danshi,haiweierdebuxunchangguijijiangshuleyigegengweiyouqudegushi。

  1989nian,lvxingzhe2haofeilvehaiwangxingshihuodedezhengjubiaoming,haiweiyi(“telitong”)shihaiwangxingcongfujindekeyibodaibuhuodetianti。haiweiyihuiraoluanhaiwangxingyuanshiweixingdeguidao,jiangqizhongdexuduoyuanshiweixingdanshechuqu。danbushaotianwenxuejiaxiangxin,haiweierkenengshixingcunzhe,zaihaiwangxingdeyinlibianyuanjinzhuabufang。

  木卫一 

  taiyangxizhongzuidadexingxingmuxingyongyousikejudadejialilveweixing。muweiyishiqizhongzhiyi。danshi,jinguanlingwaisankexiangduiwaicengdejialilveweixing——zhishaobiaomianshanglaikan——doushipingjingdebingdongxingqiu,danmuweiyidebiaomianshihuangse、hongsehezongsedekepahunhe,chongchizhegezhongqiguaiqieyizhizaibianhuadekuangwujiegou。yigezhongxingshiyongdaomuweiyibiaomiandeliuhuangzaojiulezheixiexingtaigeyidekuangwujiegou。lingwai,muweiyiyeshitaiyangxizhonghuoshanhuodongzuihuoyuedetianti。shangshijiqishiniandaichu,xianquzhehaotaikongtanceqifeilvemuweiyiqijianshouciguanchadaogaiweixingdeqiguaibiaomian,danshiyizhidao1979nianlvxingzhe1haodidadeqianjizhou,renmencaikaishituicemuweiyishangyouhuoyuedehuoshanhuodong。

  shoudaowaicengweixinghemuxingbenshenzhijiandeyinlituoyezuoyong,muweiyideguidaohennanwendingchengyigewanmeideyuanquan。muweiyiyumuxingzhijiandejulideweixiaobianhua(xiaoyu0.5%deguidaobianhua)huichanshengjudadechaoxili,conggegefangxiangchongjimuweiyideneibu。xianghumocadeyanshiyinweimocashengwen,shidemuweiyidehexinbeironghua,bingzaidibiaoxiaxingchengjudadeyanjiangku。

  suiranmuweiyidedabufenyanshihediqiushangdeyanshileisi,doushiguisuanyan,danmuweiyideyanshirongdianxiangduigenggaoyixie,yincizheixieronghuadeyanshidaduoweiyudibiaoxiashushigonglishenchudererongyanhaiyangzhong。xiangbizhixia,muweiyidedabufenbiaomianhuodongdougenfuhanliudeyanshiyouguan,zheixiehanliuyanshiderongdianjiubijiaodi,keyizaishaodiwenduxiarengbaochirongrongzhuangtai。

  zhangqiyilai,zaizheiliangzhongxingshidehuoshanhuodongdegongtongzuoyongxia,muweiyizaoyishiquqiyuanbenyongyouderenhebingwuzhi,rujinzhishengxiayigeganhanqiewubingdeshijie,jinguanmuweiyidepingjundibiaowendudizhilingxia160sheshidu。

  土卫七 

  tuweiqi(“xupoliweng”)dagaishitaiyangxiliyangzizuiguguaideweixing。tuweiqidebiaomianleisiyuhaimianhuoshanhu,bingdaiyoushensuiqieheiandekengdong,kengdongdebianyuanshimingliangdeyanshihebingkuaigouchengdefenglishanji。danzheihaibushituweiqiqiguaideweiyizhichu。tuweiqiyeshifaxiandeshougefeiqiuxingweixing,haiyouzhemingxiandepianxinguidao。

  tongchangyigetiantidezizhuanheguidaoxiangpipei,dantuweiqidupixijing。tadezizhuanhaowuguize,zizhuanzhoubukeyucedibaidongzhe。suirantuweiqiyehewaitaiyangxidesuoyouweixingyiyang,zhuyaochengfenweishuibing,dantadebiaomianqueyouyichangheian。dangkaxinihaofeilvetuweiqishi,kaxinihaoceliangchutuweiqidemiduzhiyoushuimidude55%,yejiushishuo,tuweiqijihushikongxinde。

  yigejieshizheixieqiguaitezhengdeliuxinglilunshi,tuweiqishigengdaweixingdecanhai,zheikecengjingdeweixingzaituweiliu(“taitan”)hetuweibazhijianyunxing,houlaiyuyikedahuixingxiangzhuang,jijinhuimie。zaiwendingguidaoshangxingcunxialaidecanliuwuzhizhujianzhongju,zuizhongxingchenglewomenjintiankandaodetuweiqi。

  土卫六 

  tuxingdezuidaweixing——tuweiliu,zaitaiyangxizhongzheshiduyiwuer,zhiyintuweiliushiweiyiyikeyongyoufengfudaqicengdeweixing。danglvxingzhehaotanceqifahuidezhaopianxianshituweiliubuguoshiyigemenglongdechengsexingqiushi,nasadekexuejiaweicihaihaoyizhenshiluo。suihou,peibeihongwaixianheleidayiqidekaxinihaoguidaotanceqideyitouguomohudedaqiceng,xiangwomenzhanshileyigeyongyouheliuhehubodewenhejingguan,hetaiyangxiliqitadexingqiudoubuyiyang,weiduxiangjilewomendediqiu。jinguantuweiliubishuixinghaiyaoda,danshituweiliunengweichirucinonghoudedaqibushikaoyinli,ershikaogaiweixingshangdejidiwendu。tuweiliujulitaiyangyue14yigongli,biaomianpingjunwenduweilingxia179sheshidu。

  tuweiliushangdedaqiyiduoxingqitidanqiweizhu(danqiyeshidiqiukongqidezhuyaochengfen),danqueshikongqizhongzhanbixiangduijiaoxiaodejiawanzaojiuleqidaqideduteyanse、butoumingwuaiheyuntuan。shenqideshi,tuweiliushangdehuanjingqiahaoshihejiawanzaiqitai、yetaihegutaizhijianzhuanhuan,chuangzaochuhesuzaodiqiuqihoudeshuixunhuanfeichangxiangside“jiawanxunhuan”。zaihanlenghuanjingxia,jiawandongjiechengbingshuangfugaizaituweiliudedibiao;zaiwendushiyidehuanjingxia,jiawanningjiechengyedijiangyuluoxia,tongshiqinshiheruanhuadibiaojingguan,zuihoujijuchenghubo;erzaigengjiawennuandediqu,jiawantongguozhengfafanhuidaqiceng。

  tuweiliushangyeyouzheyudiqiuxiangsidejijiebianhua,zhibuguotuweiliushangdeyinianxiangdangyuwomenzaidiqiushangde29.5nian。dongjijididewendusihuyouliyujiangyu,yincizaituweiliudemeiyinianzhong,hubocongyijiqianyidaolingyiji。jiyusuoyouzheixiehuodong,tuweiliuwuyishiwomenxunzhaowaixingshengmingdeyigeyouqumubiao,jinguandaduoshushengwuxuejiarenweizairucieliehehuaxueyouxiandetiaojianxia,youjishengminghennanshengcun。daduoshurenyegengjiatongyi,tuweiliudeneicenglinju——tuweier,yunyushengmingdekenengxinggengda。

  天卫五 

  tianweiwuyouzhetaiyangxineizuitebiedeshijie。lvxingzhehaopaishedetuxiangzhanshileyigefangfosuijidongpinxicouqilaidedimao。youxiebufenzhuangjiyanzhong,youxiebufenjihumeiyouzhuangjikeng——shuomingzheibufendiquxiangduinianqing,meiyouzaoshoutaiduochongji。yigemingxiandetezhengshileisisaidaodetongxintuoyuantuan,erzaiqitadifangpingxingdevxingxingzhuanggouchengyigexuefolanchebiaozhuangdebahen。

  yigejieshitianweiwuhunluandimaodezaoqililunrenwei,zheishiyigefulankensitanxingqiu,tianweiwudeqianshenbeizhuangsuihou,suipianzaitianwangxingdeguidaoshangzhongxinhebingchengxindeweixing。tianwenxuejiamenyehaoqi,tianweiwudeqianshenshifouyoukenengbeirenhexingjizhuangjijisui,yijizheiyizainanxingshijianyoumeiyoukenenghetianwangxingzishendejiduanqingxieyouguan。raner,jinyibudeyanjiubiaoming,zheigelilunzaijieshitianweiwudecanporubudingbandedibiaotezhengshi,shuofulibuzu,qiezaochengzheizhongjieguodezhuangjiyebutaikenengfasheng。xiangfan,chaoxiligengyoukenengshizuikuihuoshou。

  rujin,tianweiwuraozheyigejinhuyuanxingdeguidaoyunxing,danshizaiguoqu,tianweiwudecengyugengdadeweixingtianweier(“wumubolieer”)youguidaogongzhenguanxi。guidaogongzhenshiliangkeweixingshibushididuiqi,jiangtianweiwudeguidaolachengyigexizhangdetuoyuan,shoudaojiduandechaoxiliyingxiang。zailiangkeweixingzaiciyidongyijitianweiwuhuodongpingxizhiqian,zaineibudelachehejiarezuoyongxia,tianweiwudebiaomianbiandesifenwuliehouzaicizhongxinzuhe。

  土卫一 

  shangshijibashiniandai,nasadelvxingzhehaotaikongtanceqifahuituweiyidediyizhangxiangxizhaopianshi,kexuejiahegongzhongdouduizheikeweixingyu《xingqiudazhan》zhongdesixingdexiangsizhichugandaoshifenjingya。weilian·hexieerzai1789nianfaxiantuweiyi。weijinianzheiweifaxianzhe,renmenjiangzhanjujihuzhenggebanqiudejudayunshikengmingmingweihexieerzhuangjikeng。hexieerzhuangjikengdedaxiaohexingzhuangheqiaozhi·lukasizai《xingqiudazhan》zhongshexiangdecuihuixingxingdejiguangpaojihuyimoyiyang。danshi,tuweiyidaijiwomendekebuzhiliuxingwenhuadexiangsixing。

  tuweiyishituxingdeshizhixingweixingzhongzuineicedeyige,guidaobituweiergengjin,danbituweishibahetuweishiwugengyuanyixie。tuweiyidezhijingjin396gongli,shitaiyangxizhongyizhizuixiaodedadaoliutijinglipinghengdetianti。taiyangxizhongyixiegengdadetiantiyehaimeiyoudadaoliutijinglipingheng,bingqiedaduoshutianwenxuejiaxiangxin,tuweiyinenggouzuodaozheiyidianshiyinweitademidubijiaodi——zhibishuidemidugaochu15%。

  土卫十八和土卫十五 

  tuxingdeliangkeneiweixing——tuweishibahetuweishiwu,shitaiyangxizhongzuixiaodeweixing。danshi,jinguantamenchicunbuda,dancongwomendiqiushangquekeyiqingchudikandaotamensuodailaideyingxiang:zaituxinghuanxitongzhongzhizaochumingxiande“jianxi”。

  zheiliangkexiaoxiaoxingqiuhuoxuyeshimuyangquanweixingdezuizhuminglizi。muyangquanweixingzhideshizaijuxingxingxinghuanzhuangxitongneihuozhouweiyunxingdexiaoxingweixing。gumingsiyi,dangyudaoyaoyuandewaicengweixingdeyingxiangshi,muyangquanweixingkeyibaweilixiruxingxinghuanxitongnei,tongshi“qingli”qitaweili。tuxingmingliangdeahuanneiyouyigexianzhudefengxi,jiaozuoenkehuanfeng,zaochengzheigefengxideshizuoyongzhejiushituweishiba。ertuweishiwuzaiahuandewaiceyunxing。

  zheiliangkeweixingdezuiyouquzhichuzaiyutamenguanghuadewaixing,xiangjilehetaohuozhefeidie。nasadepenqituijinshiyanshidebangni·buladirenwei,zheiliangkeweixingzaimangyuqinglituxinghuandetongshi,zijiquebeizheixieweilifugai。youyudaduoshuweilidouzaiyige1gonglihoudepingmianshangyunxing,tamenquxiangyuduijizailiangkeweixingdechidaozhouwei,zhujianjileixingchengdutedechidaoji。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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