亚搏App

亚搏App

历史文化

您当前的位置: 亚搏App  >  人文西安  >  历史文化
汉代长安百戏中的体育项目
发布时间:2021-07-07     作者:耿占军 杨文秀   来源:摘自《汉唐长安的乐舞与百戏》   分享到:

我国古代传统的体育活动在汉代进入了兴盛时期,出现了我国历史上体育发展的第一次高潮。融入汉代百戏中的体育项目大致有拳术、剑术、摔跤、射箭、举重和蹴鞠等。

lieju,youchengtaju,shiwoguogudaideyizhongzuqiuyundong。《shiji·suqinliechuan》zhongsuqinxiangweiwangjieshaodangshiqiguolinzideqingkuangshishuo:“linzishenfuershi,qiminwubuchuiyu、guse、danqin、jizhu、douji、zougou、liubo、tajuzhe。”“jijie”yinliuxiang《bielu》shuo:“cujuzhe,chuanyanhuangdisuozuo,huoyueqizhanguozhishi。”shuocujushihuangdisuochuang,zhongguishi-zhongshenhuachuanshuo,bukexin。dankeyiquedingdeshi,zhichizaizhanguoshiqi,cujujiuyijingzailinzi(jinshandongzibodongbei)minjianliuxingle。daolehandai,suizheshehuijingjiwenhuadehuifuhefazhan,lewubaixideyanchurijianxingsheng,cujuhuodongyekaishipubiankaizhanqilai。huankuanzai(yantielun·guoji》zhongshuo:“liyousu,dangyouchang,kangzhuangchizhu,qiongxiangtaju。”fanyingdezhengshiminjiankaizhancujuhuodongdeqingkuang。bujinruci,cujuhuodonghaijinyibuyouminjianfazhandaolegongtinghejunduidangzhong,ju《xijingzaji》jizai,hangaoxiangdefuqinliutaigonghaiyouhoulaidehanchengdi(qian33-qian7nianzaiwei)jiudouxihaocuju。hanwudi(qian140-qian87nianzaiwei)shi,chongchendongyanyiducengjianggejunguodecujugaoshoujizhongyutadefushang,bingjingchangpeizhewudizaigongyuanzhizhongguankancujubisai。pingdingxiyuzhihou,hanwudihaijiangshenqingtijian、shanzhangcujudexiyuhurenxuanzhizhangan,gaoxingzhishi,hanwudihaiqinzishangchangtishangjijiao。chuleyule,cujuhaishijunshixunliandeyizhongshouduan。liuxiang《bielu》shuo:“taju,bingshiye,suoyilianwushi,zhiyoucaiye,jieyinxixierjianglianzhi。”dajianghuoqubingyuanzhengsaiwaishi,zaishibingmenquefaliangshi、youdeyishentiwulideqingkuangxia,tahai“chuanyutaju”。fuqianzhushuo:“chuandizuojushi。”guer,《hanshu·yiwenzhi》zaishouludangshidegezhongshujishi,jiujiang《cuju》ershiwupianlierulebingshuzhizhong。

genjuwenxianjizai,handaidejuhuo“yiweiweizhi,shiyiwu”,huo“yipiweizhi,shiyimao”。zongzhi,jiushiyizhongshixinqiu。ercujudewanfayeyouduozhong,yizhongshizuoweizhengshidetiyubisaizaizhengguidechangdishangjinxing。yaboappcujuchangdideshezhihejingsaiguize,donghanlilongzai《juchengming》zhongxiedao:“yuanjufangqiang,fangxiangyangyang。fayuehengdui,erliuxiangdang。jianzhangliping,qiliyouchang。buyiqinshu,buyouasi。duanxinpingyi,moyuanqifei。juzhengruci,kuanghuzhiji!”zheishuominghandaicujubisaidechangdishifangxingde,sizhouweiyiqiang,changdiliangduanshezhiduichengdebanyuexingqiumen。canjiabisaideliangduiyaofenbiezhidingyimingduizhang, binggongtongtuixuanyimingcaipan。zaibisaiguochengzhong,caipanyaogongzhengzhifa,buxunsiqing;yundongyuanyaoqiufengduanzheng,xinpingqihe,jishishuleqiu,yebunengmaiyuanbieren。kanlai,handaidecujubisaiyijingyouleyitaobijiaowanshandeguize。

cujudelingyizhongwanfashiyuwudaoxiangjiehe,zuoweibiaoyanyishusanjianyuhandaidebaixituzhong。biruzaixiancunhenannanyanghanhuaguandeyikuai《guwu》huaxiangshishang,jiudiaokeyoushengdongdecujutu。huamianyoubianyousanrenzoule,zuocezhijiangu。guzuoyiren,gaojixiyao,chuanzhangxiuwuyi,wuxiuqingyinghoupiao,shuangzutiaoqizhengzaitiqiu;guyouyirenzhifujigu,yikuabucuju。zaihenandengfengdeshaoshiqueheqimuqueshangyedoudiaoyoucujudehuaxiang。

image.png

河南南阳汉画像石鼓舞蹴鞠图

shaoshiqueshangdecujutu,shiyigenvzi,chuanzhangxiuwuyi,shuangzutiaoqi,zhengyonglitiqiu;liangbiangekeyiren,yirenzuozaiaichengshangshouzhigufujigu,yirenjizuobanzou。congzheixiehuaxianglaikan,qixingtaiduoshizuocujuwudexingshi,bingduoyouyinlebanzou。zheiyeshihandaicujudeyizhongzhongyaoxingshi。

ciwai,gugongbowuyuanhaizangyouyijianhandaicujuwenxiaoxingyin,keliangrenxiangxiangerli,errenxianglindeliangzuzhishanggeyouyiju。zheibiaomingchuleshangshuliangzhongwanfazhiwai,handaidecujuhaiyouqitadexingshi,erzheizhongxingshizaihandaikenenggengsuiyi、gengchangjianyixie。

image.png

河南登封少室阙 上的蹴鞠图

image.png

故宫博物院蹴鞠纹肖形印摹本

handaidequanshubeichengzuo“bian”“bian”huo“shoubo”,leisiyuxiandaiwushuzhongdetushouduida。《hanshu·aidiji》“zan”ri:xiaoai“yaxingbuhaoshengse,shilanbianshewuxi”。sulinzhujieshuo:“shouboweibian,jiaoliweiwuxiye。”handaiduishouboshifenzhongshi,chuxianlezhuanmenlunshushoubojiyidezhuzuo。《hanshu·yiwenzhi》zhongjiuluyou《shoubo》liupian。youcikejian,quanshuzaihandaiyifazhanchengwuyizhongdezhuanmenjineng。shoubojiyichuzhongdeshenzhihainengdedaohuangdideshangshi。xiangganyanshoujiuyin“shibian,weiqimen,yicailiaixing”。mengkangzhujieshuo:“bian,shoubo。”zheizhongshoubodetuxiang,zaihandaidehuaxiangshizhongyekeyijiandao。xiangzaihenannanyangdehandaihuaxiangshizhongjiuyouyifutushouxiangbotu:tuzhonggongsanren,jieduanpaoqixi,shuyao,zhangku。youbianerren,gongbuliangzhang,shuangyanduishi,sijixiangduifanggongji。erzuoceyirenyiliangzhangzuotai,zaizhouweitiaoyue。huamianjianjie,shengdongchuanshen。

image.png

河南南阳汉画像石手搏图

zaozaixianqinshiqi,jijianzhifengjiuyishengxing。hanchengxianqinyifeng,jijianzaizhangandegongtingjielvzhijianyiranshengxing,ziyouxuejijianchengweidangshideyizhongshishang。xiangsimaxiangru,“shaoshihaodushu,xuejijian”。dongfangshuoyezicheng“shiwuxuejijian,shiliuxueshishu"。youyurenmenduijijiandezhongshi,dangshihaichuxianlezhuanmenyanjiujianshudezhuzuo,《hanshu·yiwenzhi》jiushouluyou《jiandao》sanshibapian。jijianzuoweiyizhongshiyongdegongfanggedoujishu,youshiyebeiyongyiyulezhuxing。ju《hanshu·gaodiji》jizai,hangaozuyuannian(qian206nian)dongshieryue,liubangjianxiangyuyuhongmen(jinshanxilintongdongbei),xiangzhuangweilejiejishadiaoliubang,cengshuodao:“junzhongwuyiweile,qingyijianwu。”zheibianshirenmenchangshuode“xiangzhuangwujian,yizaipeigong”。houduokuixiangbodeyanhu,liubangcaixingmianyunan。zaigedifaxiandehanhuaxiangshi、huaxiangzhuanzhong,changkejiandaoyouguanjijiandetuxiang。ruhenandengfengtaishiquesuokewujianhuaxiang,yirenshouzhizhangjianhengyuxiongqian,ertuijiaochayuwu。shaoshiqueyeyoujijianhuaxiang,liangrenchuanjinshenyiku,zhijianjinxingbojizhong。1972nian,henannanyangtanghezhenzhichanghanmuchutuyikuaijijianhuaxiangshi,tuzhongyoubianerrengezhizhangjian,yirenkuabujici,yirenceshouduoshan、hengjianyuhaiji,zuoyouyitongjingkongbenzou。huamianshengdongxingxiang,biaoxianlehandaijianshubiaoyandejinzhangchangmian。chuledanrenwujian、shuangrenjijianduidadetuxiangwai,haiyouyijianyuqitaqixiegedoudetuxiang。biruzaihenanzhengzhoudehanhuaxiangzhuanzhongjiuyouyifugedoutu,huamianzhongerrenchixiexiangdou,zuobianyirenchimao,xiangyoubianyirenmengci,youbianyirenchijianyingji,liangbiangeyouyirenguanwangzhong。erjiangshouboyujianshuxiangjiehe,jiuxingchengle“kongshourubairen",yejiushitushouduiqixie。nanyanghuaxiangshizhongjiuyoutushouduijiandetuxiang:youbianyirenchijianqianci,zuobianyirenquebuyizhangxiangju。gongfangxingxiangxianming。

image.png

河南南阳汉画像石击剑图

image.png

河南郑州汉画像砖格斗图

image.png

河南南阳汉 画像石徒手对剑图

shejianshigudaijunshixunlianhelileyishideneirongzhiyi,handaishiyongyutiyujingjihexile,bingchengweidangshidebaixi“jiaodixi”deneirongzhiyi。zhangheng《xijingfu》zaimiaoxiezhipingleguanbaixiyanchudemoweishixiedao:“wangongshehuxiqiang,yougufahuxianbei。”fanyingdezhengshidangshibaixiyanchuzhongshejiandechangjing。handaiduishejianfeichangzhongshi,chuxianledaliangyanjiushefadezhuanzhu,《hanshu·yiwenzhi》shouludejiuyouqizhongzhiduo。zheishuominghandaideshejianzhishubujinxiangdangjingshu,erqiehaixingchengletedianbutongdeduojiashefa。handaiyishejianweixichujianyujunzhong,houchuanyuminjian。mingjiangliguangyishansheerzhucheng,xianxiashijiuchangchangyusilintongjuzhiminyishejianweixi,binggenjushejiandezhunquechengdujuedingshengfu,shuzhefajiu。

汉代的“角抵”一般来说有二层意思,广义的“角抵”是汉代百戏的代名词:而狭义的“角抵”就是指摔跤。所以,摔跤作为汉代百戏的一个项目应该是毫无疑义的。《汉书·西域传》在“赞”中写到:自开通西域之后,汉朝政府“设酒池肉林以飨四夷之客,作巴俞都卢、海中砀极、漫衍鱼龙、角抵之戏以观视之”。此处的“角抵”与“都卢”(缘杆)和幻术“漫衍鱼龙”并列,当指狭义的“角抵”即摔跤。由此可见,摔跤已成为当时乐舞百戏演出中的常设节目。亚搏App摔跤的图像,时间比较早的是1975年在湖北江陵凤凰山一座秦墓中出土的木篦上的角抵图中。画面上有三名男子,皆上身赤裸,下穿短裤,腰束长带。图右二人正奋力扑向对方,想将对方摔倒。图左一人侧身而立,双臂前伸,似为裁判,又似训练的指导。摔跤图像时间稍晚的有陕西长安区客省庄140号辖所出战国末到西汉初透雕铜牌饰上的角抵图和河南密县打虎亭汉墓壁画上的角抵图。在客省庄透雕铜牌饰的图像上,为两人赤裸上身,穿长裤短靴,正在摔跤。一人把腰而推,另一人则兜档而举,都想摔倒对方。从两人的面相、发型和服饰分析,当为匈奴族人。这就说明了少数民族的摔跤也在当时传入长安地区。在河南密县打虎亭汉墓壁画的角抵图上,两个身躯魁伟的力士正却身相对,相互凝视,准备扑向对方。二人头顶皆扎一冲天独角辫,腰围护腹,上身赤裸,下穿短裤。其形式与前述秦代角抵一脉相承,并与后世及东传日本的相扑极为相似。

image.png

湖北江陵 秦墓木馆上的角抵图

image.png
陕西长安区客省庄透雕钢牌饰上的角抵图

image.png

河南密县打虎亭汉基壁画上的角抵图

juzhong,gucheng“kangding”,shiyixianglishiyoujiudetiyuyundong。zhanguoshi,qinwuwang“youlihaoxi”,lishiwuhuo、mengshuo、renbiyinchangyutayiqijudinger“jiezhidaguan”。yinerdaolehandai,renmenbianbajudingzheizhonglianli、jiaolidejuzhongyundongchengzuo“wuhuokangding”,shijishangshifengwuhuoweijuzhongzhizong。zaizhangheng(xijingfu》miaoxiedepingleguanbaixiyanchuzhong,wuhuokangdingshidiyigechuchangdejiemu。buguo,baixibiaoyanzhongdekangdingyingyuyibandekangdingyouxieweidequbie,kenenghuizengjiashuanongdechengfen。handaidelishichangyikangdingweijuzhonglianlizhifa。zaijiangsuxuzhoutongshanxianhonglouhanmuchutudehuaxiangshizhong,youyifulianlitu,tuzhonggongqiren,qizhongdiwurenshuangshouzhidinger,jiangdingfanjuguotouding。zheifulianlitubujinchengxianlehandaijudingdejutichangjing,erqieyefanyingledangshiduoyangdelianlifangfa。

image.png

jiangsuxuzhoutongshanxianhonglouhangehuaxiangshilianlitu


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

亚博网页登陆 亚搏App 火狐体育 环球体育 火狐体育 亚博网页登陆 亚搏App 火狐体育 环球体育 火狐体育