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从“神一”到“神十二” 揭秘中国载人航天“神箭”
发布时间:2021-07-06     作者:刘峣 董佳莹   来源:人民日报海外版   分享到:

  chengzuoshenzhoushierhaozairenfeichuanruzhukongjianzhantianhehexincang,zhongguohangtianyuanniehaisheng、liuboming、yanghongbodetaikongzhilvqiandongrenxin。rujin,zhongguozairenhangtianyiyuanmanwanchengdiyibu、dierbudejidingrenwu,zhengxiangzhejianzaokongjianzhan、jianchengguojiataikongshiyanshidedisanbumubiaoqianjin。

  cong1999nianfasheshenzhouyihao,daojinnianfasheshenzhoushierhao,yizhi“shenjian”gongbukemei——zhangzhengerhaofxiliehuojian。

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  “zaizhongguozairenhangtiandelishishang,zhangzhengerhaofxilieyunzaihuojianzhixinglecongshenzhouyihaozhijindesuoyouzairenfeichuanhemubiaofeixingqidefasherenwu,fashechenggonglvdadao100%,beiyuweizhongguo‘shenjian’。”hangtiankejijituanyiyuanzhangerfhuojianzongzhihuijingmuchunshuo。

  weizairenfeichuanfashehehangtianyuandeshengminghuhang,zhangerfhuojianzhanwubushengdebeihou,ningjuzhejidaizhongguohangtianrendezhihuiyufengxian。

  可靠性安全性不断提高 

  zhangerfhuojianshimuqianzhongguoweiyiyixingzairenyunzaihuojian。conglixiangyanzhidaorujindi7cizairenfeixing,zhangerfyijingpeibanzhongguohangtian29gechunqiu。

  zhangerfhuojianweihenenggoudandangrucizhongren?qiangdadeanquanxingshizhongyaoyinsu。jingmuchunshuo,zhangerfhuojianshangyouliangming“yisheng”——taoyijiushengxitongheguzhangjiancexitong。zailianggexitongdexianghupeihexia,zhixingshenzhoushierhaofasherenwudezhangzhengerhaofyaoshieryunzaihuojianzaikekaoxing、anquanxingfangmianjinyibutigao。

  zuoweizhuanmenweihangtianyuantaoyieryanzhidexitong,liangming“yisheng”geyousuozhang。taoyixitongzaiyunzaihuojianpaozhengliuzhaoqianfashengzhongdaweixian、weixiedaohangtianyuandeshengminganquanshi,fuzeshihangtianyuantuoliweixianqu,bingweihangtianyuanfanhuizhelutigongbiyaotiaojian。guzhangjiancechulixitongzefuzejiancehuojiandezhongyaocanshu、panduanhuojianguzhang,zaichuxianguzhangshixiangyouguanxitongfachutaoyizhilinghezhongzhifeixingzhiling,bingzaitaoyishiwanchengtaoyifeixingqideshixukongzhidengrenwu。

  taoyixitongfahuizuoyong,libukaitaoyitazhuangzhi。“taoyitashizairenhuojiandebiaozhi,youtaoyitadehuojiancainengzhixingzairenhangtianrenwu。”zhangerfhuojianqianrenzongzhihuiliuyushuo。

  suoweitaoyita,shizhiweiyuhuojiandingbu、xiangbileizhensidejudazhuangzhi。zaihuojianqifeiqian15fenzhongdaoqifeihou120miao,huojianyidanchuxianwenti,taoyitashangdefadongjijiuhuilikeqidong,rangfeichuandeguidaocanghefanhuicangyuhuojianfenli,bingjiangluozaianquandidai,diyishijianbangzhufeichuanshangdehangtianyuantuolixianjing。

  jibianyongyouduoxiangjishudejiachi,zheizuohangtianyuande“shengmingta”yebuhuiqingyiqiyong。“taoyitadeyanzhiningjiezhejidaihangtianrendexinxue,danyongyuanburangzheigegongnengqiyongshimeigehangtianrendexinyuan。”liuyushuo。

  shenqingruyan,quelidawuqiong——zheishizhangerfhuojianzuoweizairenhangtianqidezhuanshuhuojiandedutesheji。zhangerfyaoshierhuojiangaoda58.3mi,xiangdangyu20cenglou,qifeituiliyue600dun。huojianquanshenshangxia90%dezhonglianglaiziyuqixiedaideranliao。

  weileduozhuangranliao、jiangshenzhoushierhaohehangtianyuansongdao“taikongzhijia”,huojianbenshendezhongliangyaozugouqing。weici,zhangerfyaoshierhuojianyoudewaiqiaohoudujinyou1.5haomi,xiangdangyubolibeibeibidehoudu。

  jingguobuduandejishugaijin,cicizhixingzairenfeixingdezhangerfyaoshieryunzaihuojianhangtianyuananquanxingpinggujieguowei0.99996。“weilequebaorenwuchenggong、anquan,zhiyaonenghuanlaibaifenzhilingdianlingji,shenzhishilingdianlinglingjidezhibiaotisheng,womensuozuoderenhegongzuodoushizhidede。”hangtiankejijituanyiyuanzhangzhengerhaofyunzaihuojianfuzongshiliufengshuo。

  几代“火箭人”创造历史 

  1992nian,zhongguozairenhangtiangongchengzhengshilixiang,zairenyunzaihuojianjinrushejijieduan。zineishiqi,jingmuchunjiuyizhigenzhehuojianzou,congfanganlunzheng、yanzhishengchandaozongheceshi、fasheshiyan……20duonianlai,tahetongshiyiqicanyu、jianzhenghechuangzaolezhongguozairenhangtiandelishi。

  zairenhangtiangongchenglixianghou,jingmuchunbeixuanweizhangzhengerhaofyunzaihuojianguzhangjiancechulixitongdeyanzhirenyuan。neishi,zhongguogaozairenhangtianshidiyici,gaozairenhangtianyunzaihuojianguzhangjiancechulijishu、guzhangjiancechulixitonggengshidiyici,shejiduoxiangnanti。weilexuexiyanjiu,jingmuchunhetongshibenbozaitushuguan、daxueheziliaoshi,yiqujiushiyizhengtian,wanshangchangchangjiabandaoshenye。

  dangshi,jingmuchunhetongshikecankaodejishuziliaofeichangyouxian,nengchadaoneirongyeduoshiyixiegongkaide“daluhuo”,jutifangandeshixianwanquanyaokaoziji,zaitansuozhongyanjiujiejue。

  weici,zaifanganlunzhengjieduan,jingmuchunjihutiantianjiabanaoye,jinyongyigeduoyuedeshijianjiuwanchenglekexingxingbaogaofenxi。suihou,jingmuchunhetongshijiehewaiguodexianjinjishuheshijiqingkuang,yicicixiuzheng、fuhe、gaijin,zuizhongxingchengleguzhangzhenduanhetaoyitujingdechuxing,weizhongguozairenhangtianyunzaihuojiandeanquanxinghekekaoxingdaxialejianshijichu。

  2006nian,jingmuchunjierenzhangerfhuojianzongshejishi。2008nian,zhongguozairenhangtiangongchengdierbulakaiweimu。weilemanzuzheiyijieduandefasherenwuxuqiu,jingmuchundailingtuanduiduizhangerfhuojiandiedaishengji,jinxingle100duoxianggezhongjishuzhuangtaidegenggai,qizhongyouduoxiangguanjianjishuzaiguoneihuojianyanzhishishangshouciyingyong。2014nian,jingmuchunzoushanglezhangerfhuojianzongzhihuidegangwei,yuanmanwanchengletiangongerhaokongjianshiyanshi、shenzhoushiyihaofeichuandefashe,weizhongguozairenhangtiangongchengdierbuhuashangleyuanmanjuhao。

  rujin,zhiyaonaqizhangzhengerhaofhuojiandejishuyuguanliwenji,jingmuchundouhuixiangqiyuhuojianyiqizouguodelicheng。“zuoge‘huojianren’qishizuiyouchengjiugan。nixiang,jianglaikanzhemantiande‘xingxing’,doushinizuodehuojianfasheshangqude,neiganjuezhenshitinghaode!”

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  “载人航天,人命关天” 

  youle“rongyi”,huojianfashegengrongyile——shenzhoushierhaofashechenggonghou,xianrenzhangerfhuojianzongshejishirongyiyinfaleguanzhuhereyi。

  zaiyicizhaoshengxuanjiangshang,haizaidugaozhongderongyiduihangtianchanshenglexingqu。2006nian,tajinruhangtiankejijituanyiyuangongzuo。2009nian,gangguobuhuozhinianderongyibiantiaoqilezhangerfhuojianguzhangjiancetaoyizongtishejidezhongren。

  guzhangjiancehetaoyiliangdaxitongshibaozhanghangtianyuanshengminganquande“baoxiansheng”。zuoweiyiminghangtianxinren,rongyibutingdikenshuben、zuobiji,zaiduanshijianneizhangwolehexinzhishi,wanshanlezhengliuzhaofenlishixiaoguzhangmoshidepanbiefangfa,tichulezitaijiaoxinxichuxianyichangqingkuangxiadepanjuchulifangfa,dadatigaoleguzhangpanduandezhunquelv。

  2012nian6yue16ri,shenzhoujiuhaofeichuanfashe,liuyangdeng3weihangtianyuandachengyunzaihuojianjinrutaikong,zheiyeshizhongguohangtianshishangshoucinvhangtianyuanchenggongfeitian。kandaohangtianyuanjinruzijicanyushejidehuojian,chenggongjinrutaikongdechangjing,rongyireleiyingkuang。

  “neiyike,hangtianyuandeshengmingjiujituozaiwomenshenshang。wozhenzhengyishidao‘zairenhangtian,renmingguantian’bushiyijukouhao,ershiwomenjihangtianyuandechengnuo。”rongyishuo。

  jinnian,zhongguokongjianzhanjiansherenwulakaiweimu。shige5nian,zaiduchuzhengdezhangerfhuojianjinxingleduoxiangjishugaijin——109xiangjishuzhuangtaigenggaizhong,you70yuxiangyukekaoxingtishengxiangguan。jinguanzheixiegaijinzhuyaoshiweilexiaochuboruohuanjie,bushejizhongdajishuzhuangtaibianhua,danrongyijiqituanduibufangguorenheyigeboruodian,quebaofasheanquanshunli。

  heyiwangdefashebutong,zhangerfyaoshierheyaoshisanhuojiancicitongshijinchangzongzhuangheceshi。zhangerfyaoshierhuojianfashehou,zhangerfyaoshisanhuojianjiangzaichangfangjiuwei,jinrudaimingzhuangtai,suishizhunbeifasheshenzhoushisanhaofeichuan,yiyingduixuyaojiuyuandeqingkuang,jianghangtianyuanjiehuidimian。

  rongyishuo,yingjifashedaimingzhuangtaijiangchixu3geyue,shiyanduiyuanjiangcaiqu24xiaoshisanbandaodefangshijinxinghuojianzongce,zhidaohangtianyuanshunlifanhuidiqiu。

  shizhijinri,rongyiyijing7cicanyulezairenhangtiangongchengjiaohuiduijiehekongjianshiyanshifasherenwu,qizhong3cidanrenfashexianchanghuojianzhihui、1cidanrenhuojianzongshejishi。

  “tansuohaohanyuzhou、fazhanhangtianshiye、jianshehangtianqiangguo,shiwomenbuxiezhuiqiudehangtianmeng。”rongyishuo,zijixingyundiganshanglezhongguohangtiandegaosufazhanqi,yongyouguangkuodepingtaiweiguozhengguang。zairenhangtiangongchengrenwudechenggong,shitaxinzhongzuizhongdebaojiang。

【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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