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我国生物多样性有哪些特点?
发布时间:2021-06-24     作者:张风春   来源:中国环境报   分享到:

woguodewuzhongtebiefengfu,beilieweishijieshang12geshengwuduoyangxingtebiefengfudeguojiazhiyi,yebeichengzuo“judaduoyangxingguojia”(megadiversity country)。

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2021年1月13日,青海可可西里自然保护区的藏羚羊。(图源:视觉中国)

kexuejiamengenjuyigeguojiadejizhuidongwu、kunchongzhongdefengdiekewuzhonghegaodengdongzhiwudeshumu,congerpingdingchu“judaduoyangxingguojia”。zheixieguojiadewuzhongshuzhanlequanshijieshangshuleiqunwuzhongzongshude70%。zheiyechengweihoulairenmenanshengwuduoyangxingfengfuchengdujiangwoguopaizaiquanqiuqianliedeyoulai。suiranzheizhishikexuejiapinggudejieguo,danjibenshangfanyinglewoguoshengwuduoyangxingdefengfuchengduhediwei。

woguodeshengwuduoyangxingtedianzongtishangkegaikuoweifengfuhedute,jutibaokuoyixiajigetedian:

wuzhongfengfuduoyang。ju《zhongguoshengwuwuzhongminglu2008》,woguoyongyougaodengzhiwu34000duozhong,jushijiedisanwei。woguoshishijieshangluozizhiwuzuiduodeguojia,jihuyongyouquanqiuwendaidequanbumubenshu;jizhuidongwuyue7300zhong,zhanshijiezongzhongshude14%;haishishijieshangniaoleizhongleizuiduodeguojiazhiyi,gongyouniaolei1445zhong,zhanshijiezongzhongshudejin15%;woguodeyuleizhanshijieyuleizongzhongshude17.5%。

suiranzheixieshujuyizhichuzaibuduanbianhuazhong,danduizongtiqushihewoguoshengwuduoyangxingdediweibingweiyousihaoyingxiang。

teyoushu、zhongfanduo。woguoshengwuquxideteyouxianxiangmingxian,gaodengzhiwuzhongteyouzhongzuiduo,yue17300zhong。zaiwoguodejizhuidongwuzhong,teyouzhongyoujin700zhong,zhan9%yishang。renmenshuzhideyou“huohuashi”zhichengdeshuishan、yinxing、yinshan、panzhihuasutie、daxiongmaodeng,doushiwoguodeteyouzhong。

quxiqiyuangulao。youyuzhongshengdaimo(jujinyue6500wannian)woguodabufendiquyishangshengweiludi,disijibingqiyouweizaoshoudalubingchuandeyanzhongyingxiang,woguoxuduodiqudoubutongchengdudibaoliulebaieji、disanjidegulaocanyiwuzhong,rumulan、mulian、hanxiaodeng。woguohenduoluqishuiqijizhuidongwuzhongbushaodoushigulaozhonglei,rulingniu、daxiongmao、yangzie、danideng。

zhongzhiziyuanfengfu。woguodezaipeizhiwu、jiayangdongwujiqiyeshengqinyuandezhongzhiziyuanfeichangfengfu,zuowupinzhong、yaoyongzhiwu、mucao、guanshanghuahuidengyeyichangfengfu。woguodenongyeyouchaoguo7000niandeyoujiulishi,henzaojiufajue、liyong、peiyufanzhileziranhuanjingzhongdeyichuanziyuan,yinciwoguodezaipeizhiwuhejiayangdongwushishijieshangzuifengfude,guoshuzhongleijushijiediyiwei。

muqian,renleishenghuosuoyilaidedongwuhezhiwu,henduoqiyuanyuwoguo,erqiewoguozhijinhaibaoyoutamendeyeshengzhongjijinyuanzhong。woguotongyangjuyouyoujiudeyeshengdongwuxunyanglishi,shishijieshangjiayangdongwupinzhongheleiqunzuifengfudeguojia。jiayangdongwuzhong,haiyoudaliangdeteyouzhongziyuan,zaizhangqiderengongxuanzehexunyangzhihou,zheixiewuzhongzaijingjixuetezheng、shengtaileixing、fanzhixingzhuangdengfangmianxingchengdute、fengfudebianyi,chengweishijieshangteyoudezhongzhiziyuanbaoku。

shengtaixitongfengfuduocai。woguojuyoufengfudelushengshengtaixitong、haiyangyudanshuishengtaixitong,juyoudiqiulushengshengtaixitongdegezhongleixing,rusenlin、guancong、caoyuan、xishucaoyuan、caodian、shamo、nitan、gaoshandongyuan、bingchuandeng。woguodedanshuishengtaixitongleixinghehaiyangshengtaixitongleixingyetongyangfengfuduocai。

fengfudechuantongzhishiheminzuwenhua。youyuyoujiudelishiheduominzudetedian,woguoyushengwuduoyangxingzhijiexiangguandechuantongzhishi、minzuwenhuahechuantongxisuyefengfuduocai。ruzangzuduizhenxiwuzhongdebaohu,hanizuduishenshan、shenlindebaohu,mengguzuduicaoyuandebaohu,naxizubuzhunkanfashuiyuanlin、buzhunzaishumushengzhangqikanfa、buzhunlieshayunshouheyoushoudechuantongdeng,doushiduishengwuduoyangxingzuihaodebaohu。

geminzudechuantongyiyaoshishengwuduoyangxingkechixuliyongzhishihewenhuadezhongyaozuchengbufen。zaijilinzhangbaishandiqu,dangdi“fangshan”(jijinshancaiwayeshengrencan)dexisuzhongjiuyou“taidaliuxiao”(zhinengcaiwadaderencan,shangweizhangchengdexiaocanyaoliuxiajihouren)he“honglangtoubuzhong”(rufaxianyouchengshuderencanzhongzi,yaojiangzhongzicaishoubingjiudibozhong,gonghourencaiwa)dengchuantong,zheixiechuantongzhishi、minzuwenhuahexisudouduishengwuduoyangxingdebaohuhekechixuliyongjuyouzhongyaoyiyi


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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