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外表高冷内心火热,没错说的就是荷花
发布时间:2021-06-22     作者:廖鑫凤   来源:科普中国   分享到:

zhongtongwaizhi,bumanbuzhi,hehuachangshiweigaojiepinzhidexiangzheng。erqibenshenjingyingtitoudehuaban、guangjiedeou,dourangguanshangderencongtashenshangganshoudaoyisiliangyi。

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荷花超级疏水的叶片

(图片来源Innerpath)

danqishihehuakaihuadeshihouyichangwennuan,yidiandoubugaoleng。tabujinnengjiare,hainengbaochihengwen。

dangtakaihuadeshihou,waibuhuanjingwendunapadidao10sheshidu,tadehuaneihengwenyenengbaochizai30-35sheshiduzuoyou,jihugenrentitiwenchabuduo。dangran,tayebushibazhengduohuadoujiaredaozheigewendu,bijinghehuataidale。

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荷花图解,最内为它的圆锥形花托。

(图片来源Spiritual Botany)

weichihengwendezhiyouhuazuilimiandebufen,jiciruiqun。ciruiqunzheshengzaiyigepengdachengyuanzhuixingdehuatuoshang,huatuoneitianmanhaimianzuzhi,ciruiquanzheshengzaishangmian,zhibazhutouluchuzaibiaomian。zheigepengdadejiegoulimianzhucunzhedianfen,zaikaihuashitongguokangqinghuxichanre,tongshitayoubaohuzheciruizhonggongzhongzifayudezifang,dengdaizhehouqifayuchenglianpengbangzhusanbozhongzi。

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热成像仪下的清晨恒温的荷花花托,跟人体手指的温度几乎一样了。

(图片来源:参考文献1)

荷花:我自闭了,我想开了

hehuaweiheyaojiareziji,baochihengwenni?zheiqishianzangzhetade“xiaoxinji”。

hehuadanduohuadehuaqizhiyou3-4tian,fenweisangejieduan,danzhihuibiheliangci。

diyicishigangkaishi,huazhidakaiyidiandian,cishishihuadediyijieduan:cihuaqi。ciruiyijingchengshu,huatuobiaomiandezhutoufenmichunianye,danxiongruibingbusanfen,ershijinjinweizhuhuatuo,wanchengziwogeli,fangzhizijiao。

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第一天打开的荷花,仅打开一点点,但已经可以让小型甲虫进去。

(图片来源:wiki)

diyitiankaihuadehehuajiuchongmanle“xinji”,jinguanzhikaileyidiandian,danqiangliedexiangweihuixiyinxiaojiachongguolai。weibaozhengtamennengjizhutouchongzushoufen,hehuazaiyewanshiyouhuijinjinbiheqilai,baxiaojiachongmensuozailimian,zheiyangzaihualihuodongdejiachonghuiqucaijizhutoushangdefenmiwu,chongfenchupengdaozhutou。

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第一天打开,在里面活动的小甲虫吃柱头的分泌物。

(图片来源:参考文献2)

zheiyangyiyeguohou,hehuayouhuizhongxindakai,buguozheicidakaidefudugengda,jinrukaihuadediergejieduan:xionghuaqi。cishiwushudexiongruiyejihukaishitongshisanfen,buzaijinjinkaozhehuatuole。

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第一天A与第二天荷花B中雌雄蕊的相对位置,

s为柱头,an为花药,ap为雄蕊附属物。

(图片来源:参考文献3)

zheishihehuasanfadeqiweigengjianonglie,zaicixiyinxiaojiachongmenguolai,danweilerangtamenfengkuangxifen,daolewanshangshihuayouhuizhongxinbiheqilai,jiangtamensuozaiqizhong,zhishiweiwanquanbihe,liuyoufengxi,zheiyangwanshangxiaojiachongyirankeyipajinlai,danpachuqubingburongyi,xianruqizhongdejiachongchongfenhuodong,wuyizhongzaiquanshenxiemanhuafen。

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小甲虫在荷花内收集花粉。

(图片来源:参考文献2)

zaizheizhihou,hehuazhongyubuzibile。jinrulekaihuadedisangejieduan,danyechabuduozouxiangleyiduohuademoqi,huabanyuxiongruituiqu,zhiliuxiahuatuo,suihoufayuchengwomenshuxidelianpeng,daoqiutianzaiyuwomenxiangju。

荷花化身宾馆,为小甲虫打造爱巢

hehuakaihuayichanghaofeinengliang,tayigezhishangjinjuzheyizhihua,kaihuadeshihouzhijingchaoguo25limi,shizhiwujiezuidaxingdedanhuazhiyi;erqietahaiyouwushuzhuxiongruiyuhuabanyiqiweizaihuatuoshang,haiyaochanre,keweifanzhidaijiaanggui。

yanjiurenyuanyefaxian,kaihuaqijian,hehuadehaoyangliangzengdazhiyuanlaide4、5bei,zheiyeyiweizheweilemanzujudadenengliangxiaohao,chucunzaihuatuozhongdedianfenfengkuangshuchu,xiaohaozijilaihuxichanre。

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荷花开花的温度与耗氧量,Ta为环境温度,Tr为花内温度,竖轴Oxygen Consumptiong为耗氧量曲线。

(图片来源:参考文献4)

kexuejiamentuicegaowendudehengwenqishijiushiweixiaojiachongmenzhunbeidebaochou。tongguojiare,hehuaweitamendazaowanshangdenuanfang。hehualiangcizaiwanshangdebihehuijiangfanghuadekunchongsuozaihualimian,relianghuirangkunchongjuedezijifangfojinruleyijiannuanfang。

duiyubunenghengwendekunchonglaishuo,tamenkeyizailimianjiqureliang,xinganqingyuanbeisuozaihuali,zailimianchiciruifenmiwu、xiongrui、huaban,shenzhizaiqizhongjiaopei,wuyiyuzhujinlemianfeidehaohuajiudian。

hehuazheiyangzuo,kendingyeshiyouhaochu。diyitiandebiherangkunchongnengchongfenjiechuciruidezhutou,diertianzenengrangtamenchongfenjiechuhuafen。

小小的甲虫选育了大大的荷花

huabanjuda、zaiwanshangbihe、xiangqinongyu、waibiaolengdanneixinkuangredengzhongzhongtezhengdoubiaoming,hehuashi“huan”lejiachongchuanfenzonghezheng(cantharophilous)。

yuhehuayiyang,zheilei“huan”lejiachongchuanfenzonghezhengdehuadoufazhanchudaxingdehuaban,chanreyeduocizai“jiachonghua”(“jiachonghua”weizhuyaoxiyinjiachongzuoweichuanfenkunchongdehua,yufenglei、dielei、niaoleichuanfenzhiwudehuajiegoushangyouchabie)dangzhongyanhuachulai,yewanbiheyetongyangshitamendegongtongtezheng,yicilaijijiachongdanghunfang,shenzhidangquntihunfang。

wushudexiongruigenhuafen,shenzhiyeshiweijiachongchuanfendingzhide。butongyumifeng,jiachongsuiranshishifengulaodechuanfenzhe,dantadechuanfenxiaolvbingburuhoulaijueqidemifeng,xiedaidehuafenshuliangyuyundongnenglidouburumifeng,yincikaojiachongchuanfendezhiwubixuchanshengzugouduodehuafencainengbaozhengchuanfenchenggong。

bujinruci,yixieyilaijiachongchuanfendezhiwuhaixuyaojijiachongzhunbeizugoudeshiwu,bimianjiachongchidiaozijidexiongruihecirui。womensuoxinshangdaodejudadehuaban,yeshihehuajijiachongzhunbeideshiwu,napahuabanbeijiachongkenshi,yeyaobaoquanzijidexingqiguan(xiongruiyucirui)。

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同样“患”甲虫传粉综合症的木兰类花的花瓣就在传粉中牺牲了。

(图片来源:参考文献5)

bizhezainiandaxuedeshihou,zhiwuxuexiangguanjiaocaishangyinhehua“huan”youjiachongchuanfenzonghezheng,bianjiangqirendingshiyuanshidehualeixing。shijishangzheizhishiyujiachongchuanfenxiangpipeidetezheng,chengbushangyuanshi。

jinguanzaigefangmian,hehuadouyujiachongchuanfendezhongzhongtezhengxiangpipei,shenzhikeyishuo,hehuazheimedadehuajiushixiaoxiaodejiachongbangwomenxuanyude,danxianzaidehehuasihugengyilaifengleichuanfen。

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蜂类在荷花内采集花粉

(图片来源:参考文献2)

zheiyifangmianshiyinweihehuadeziranfenbuyijingbeidaluanle,yinweirenleidezhongzhi,hehuadefenbubeikuoda,nengyuqixiangpipeide,juyoutongyangfenbufanweidechuanfenzhesihuzhiyoufengleile。erqiefengleishiyileifanhuadechuanfenzhe,youyichangqinlao,hehuajinguanmeiyouhuami,danchanshengdalianghuafen,duitamenyecunzaixiyinli,yincixianzaifengleichengweilehehuadechuanfendadang。

lingyifangmianzeshihehuayanhualishihenzhang,zuoweihuohuashizhiyi,taqichudechuanfendadangkenengzaiwushucidehuanjingbianhuazhongxiaowangle。erhehuaquehuolimanmandicunhuozhijin,shenzhizairenleizheigexinwuzhongjueqizhihou,dashanglerenleiqianxideshunfengche,bazuichudechuanfenzheshuaiyushenhou。

buguo,zaiwomenguanshanghehuashi,kandaotashuodaliangjiedehuaban,jiangkaiweikai、shudubihedehanxiuxingtaiyijisanfachunongyuhuaxiangshi,haishideganxiexiaojiachongmenbangwomentiqian“xuanyu”lehehua。


cankaowenxian:

[1]grant n m, miller r a, watling j r, et al. distribution of thermogenic activity in floral tissues of nelumbo nucifera[j]. functional plant biology, 2010, 37(11): 1085-1095.

[2]li, jiao-kun, and shuang-quan huang. "effective pollinators of asian sacred lotus (nelumbo nucifera): contemporary pollinators may not reflect the historical pollination syndrome." annals of botany 104.5 (2009): 845-851.

[3]vogel, s., and f. hadacek. "contributions to the functional anatomy and biology of nelumbo nucifera (nelumbonaceae) iii. an ecological reappraisal of floral organs." plant systematics and evolution 249.3 (2004): 173-189.

[4]seymour, roger s., and paul schultze-motel. "thermoregulating lotus flowers." nature 383.6598 (1996): 305-305.

[5] gottsberger g, silberbauer-gottsberger i, seymour r s, et al. pollination ecology of magnolia ovata may explain the overall large flower size of the genus[j]. flora-morphology, distribution, functional ecology of plants, 2012, 207(2): 107-118.


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