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“九旬院士”叶叔华:天文是一辈子的浪漫事业
发布时间:2021-06-22     作者:张建松、李海伟、丁汀   来源:光明日报   分享到:

  

yeshuhuayuanshiqianwangshanghaitianwentaibangongshi(3yue18rishe)。 jizhezhangjiansongshe

  zaiyinianyidudeshanghaikejijie,youyixiangxiangkexuejiazhijing、biaodaduikexuejiajingshenzunchongyuhongyangdechuantongjiemu——“kexuejiazouhongtan”。jinnian,woguoshouweinvtianwentaitaizhang、94suigaolingdezhongguokexueyuanyuanshiyeshuhuashoupengxianhua,jingshenjueshuo、weixiaocixiangdidiyigezoushanglehongtan。

  mianduishoudaomingxingbandejiadaohuanying,yeshuhuashuo:“jintianshiwodiyicizouhongtan,youdianjinzhang。dankandaozheimeduonianqingren,zhendehenkaixin。woyaochenzhehainengzoudedong,weizhongguokejizaiduozuodianshi!”

  zicong1951nianjinrushanghaitianwentai,zaizhangda70niandeshijianli,yeshuhuayongtianwenchengzailangman,yongshiganquanshichuxin,zhijinrengzaimeitiangongzuo。quanqiuwufenzhiyiderenkougongyongde“beijingshijian”,zaitadezhuchixiadansheng。yuzhouzhong,youyikexiaoxingxingshiyitademingzimingming。

  tahaishiwoguotianwendiqiudonglixueyanjiulingyudedianjirenzhiyi,kaichuangxingditichujianshezhongguoshenzhangjixianshediangansheceliangwang(vlbi),changdaobingjianchengshanghai65mishedianwangyuanjing,tuidongwoguochengweishijiezuidawangyuanjingliezhen(ska)dechuangshiguo,tuidongshanghaijiansheskashujuzhongxin。

  32suitiaoqijianlizhongguoshijieshixitongdezhongdan

  jinguanshijianyijingguoqule70nian,yeshuhuazhijinrengqingchudijide,1951nian11yue19ritadaoshanghaixujiahuiguanxiangtai(xianshanghaitianwentai)diyitianbaodaodeqingjing。

  “dangshixinzhongguogangchenglibujiu,baifeidaixing,xujiahuiguanxiangtaihaichuyujunguanzhuangtai,damenjinbi。woguoqupailepaimen,zhitingjianlimianyourendashengwen:shei?ganshenmede?wohuidashilaibaodaocanjiagongzuode。ranhoumenfengyikai,yigedaizhecidaodeqiangjiushenlechulai,zhendehelewoyidatiao。buguojiefangjunsuiranguandeyan,danbaodaohaishitingshunlide。”yeshuhuashuo。

  xujiahuiguanxiangtaiyoufaguochuanjiaoshijianli,zaozai1844nianjiukaishiletianwenceshihebaoshigongzuo,shiwoguozuizaokaizhanjindaishoushigongzuodetianwentai。yeshuhuajinruxujiahuiguanxiangtaidediyifengongzuoshiguancehengxing,jisuanhengxingshi,zuoweishanghaitianwentaifaboshijiandeyiju。yihou,tayougenjuqianhousangeyuedeguance,dingchufaboshihaodewucha,zaibajieguojijiguojishijianju,canjiaquanqiuhezuo。

  ceshishiyixiangkuzaoxizhidegongzuo。guancezhexuyaoyibiancaozuozhongxingyimubuzhuanjingdigenzonghengxing,yibianxuyaojilu,genxingdehaohuaizhijieyingxiangleguancejingdu。zhongxingyishiyigepangdadeshebei,shencaijiaoxiaodeyeshuhuacaozuoqilaishifenkunnan,yushitajialeyikuaimuban,zhanzaishangmiangenzongguancehengxing,wulunhanshu、yisibugou。dangniandebangongtiaojianshifenjianku,meiyoudifangchifan,tajiubabaofeideqiyoutongdangchengcanzhuo,zaishangmianchiwufan。

  bilulanlvdejiankushenghuo,bingmeiyouzudangyeshuhuazhuiqiutianwenkexuedereqing。youyici,guojishijianjulaixinxunwen:weishenmexujiahuideceshijieguomeigeyuedouyoubodong?daizhezheigeyiwen,yeshuhuazhubujianchajisuanbuzhou,zuihoufaxianyuanlaishiyigexiuzhengzhimeiyoujiajinqu。yiqian,dajiajuedeshuzhijiaoxiao,weijiayikaolv。houlaisuizheguancejingdutigao,jiabujiajiuyouyingxiangle。zheigexiuzhengzhi,20duoniandoumeiyourenzhuyidao,xixindeyeshuhuacongzheixiekuzaodeshuzibeihou,zhujianlingwudaokexueyanjiudezhendi。

  “qinruohaotian,jingshouminshi”。gujinzhongwai,duishijianjingque、tongyideduliangshiyigeguojiatoudengdashi。xinzhongguochenglihou,guojiaduigaojingdudeshoushigongzuoyoupoqiexuqiu,youqishicehuibumen。yinweidangshiquanguojinyousanfenzhiyidemianjijinxingguojingdujiaodideceliang,erqiechengguozhiliangcanchabuqi,cehuijizhunbutongyi,zhishixuduoshengyushengzhijiandedixingtudoubunengpinjie。

  gaojingdudecehuigongzuoxuyaogaojingdude“shihao”。dangnianwoguozhuyaoshiyongsulianshihao,zhongsuliangguomianjidouhenguangkuo,ruciyuanjulijieshousulianshihaohenbuwending,cehuibumenpoqiexiwangnengyongshangzhongguozijifabodeshihao。zaiguojiaxuqiutuidongxia,xujiahuiguanxiangtaigouzhileyiqi、zengtianlerenshou,shoushigongzuoyoulehendatigao,danyishihaishimanzubulexuqiu。

  1955nian,zaiyicigongzuohuiyishang,cehuibumenrenyuanjiangsulianyuxujiahuishihaogaizhengshudechudejingdujieguojinxinglezhuxiangbidui,jieguohaishisuliandegaizhengshubijiaohao。xiangguanfuzerenxinlijile,renbuzhudashengshuo:“cehuijiebuhuishiyongxujiahuigongbudeshujude,buyongnimendejieguohaihao,yonglenimendejieguo,fanerbawomendegongzuogaohuaile。”

  yeshuhuatingdaozheifanhua,xinlijiweiquyounankan,yegengjiarenshidaozijigongzuodezhongyaoxing、poqiexing。bufushudetaanxiajuexin,juebunengzuodebisuliancha。tahetongshimenyiqizhouyefendou,buduanzaiceshi、shoushiheboshigongzuozhongjinxinggaijin,shixujiahuifabodeshihaowendingdu(jingquedu)buduantigao。

  1957nian,zhongkeyuanshulihuaxuebuzhuanmenzaishanghaizhaokaishoushigongzuohuiyijinxingjianding,jieguorenweixujiahuifabodebpvshihaojingqueduhaoyuzhengfu0.003miao,yimanzuguoneidadiceliang、hanghai、hangkong、gongkuangdenggejiejinxingcehuidexuyao。danhaixuyaozaizhongxibujianlixindeshoushitai,yimanzuquanguogedidounengshoudaoboshixunhao。ciwai,haixuyaojinkuaijianlizhongguozijideshijieshixitong,buzaiyikaoguojishijianjuhuosuliandeshijianxitong。

  1958nian,32suideyeshuhuatiaoqilejianlizhongguoshijieshixitongdezhongdan。youyudangshizhongguoceshitaizhandeshuliangyuguojishijianjuhesulianxitongxiangchataiyuan,yeshuhuacaiquyizhongdupixijingdeshujuchulifangfa,jiejuelejishunanti。

  cihou,zaiquanguo5getianwentaidetonglihezuoxia,1965nianshanghaitianwentaizhuchide“zongheshihaogaizhengshu”tongguoguojiajijishujianding。jiandingweiyuanhuiyizhirenwei,woguodezongheshijieshidejingqueduyidadaoguojixianjinshuiping。1966nianchu,zhengshizuoweiwoguodeshijieshijizhunxiangquanguofasong,zheijiushihoulaide“beijingshijian”。

  huiyiqineiyiduanjiqingranshaodeqingchunsuiyue,yeshuhuagankaidishuo:“gangkaishibingbuwanquanlijieguojiaweishenmeyidingyaogaozijideshijianbiaozhun,dancongzhangyuankan,zheixiangjuecefeichangyingming。yixiangshiyehuigaibianrendechuzhong,xingquyeshikeyigaibianhepeiyangde,guanjianzaiyunizhenzhenglejieshiyedeyiyisuozai。ranhouzaiqizhongzhaodaozijidedingwei,jishinianruyiridiqinmiangongzuo,zuochuzijidegongxian。”

  xiongzhongyoutaolvedetianwenxuejia

  2007nianyilai,zhongguokexueyuanvlbiwangchengweiwoguohangtiancekongxitongdeyigefenxitong,zaizhongguorenjianxinerlangmandetansuotaikongzhengchengzhong,yiluhuhang、daxianshenshou。jinnian5yue15ri,woguoshougezizhuhuoxingtanceqi“tianwenyihao”chenggongzheluhuoxing,woguoxingjitancechenggongshixiancongdiyuexidaoxingxingjidekuayue,zheiyilushang,jiuyouvlbiwangdedinglixiangzhu。

  vlbishi“shenzhangjixiangansheceliangjishu(very long baseline interferometry)”desuoxie。jiandanlaishuo,vlbijiushibajigefenbuzaigedidewangyuanjinglianheqilai,dadaoyijiachaodawangyuanjingdeguancexiaoguo。

  woguovlbiceguifenxitongyishanghaitianwentaiweiqiantouzongtidanwei,youguojiatianwentaimiyunzhan、shanghaitianwentaitianmazhan、yunnantianwentaikunmingzhan、xinjiangtianwentaiwulumuqizhanyijiweiyushanghaitianwentaidevlbishujuchulizhongxin(vlbizhongxin)zucheng。zheigeguancewangluogouchengdewangyuanjingfenbianlv,xiangdangyukoujingda3000duoqianmidejudazonghekoujingshedianwangyuanjing,cejiaojingdukeyidadaobaifenzhijijiaomiao,shenzhigenggao。zaiguojishang,woguoshidiyigejiangvlbijishuchenggongyingyongyuhangtiancekongdeguojia。

  yeshuhuashiwoguovlbijishufazhandekaituozhehedianjiren。cong1973niantichujianyidao2003nianvlbiwangerqigongchengtongguoyanshou,zhengzheng30nianshijian,tayizhizaishiwoguovlbigongchengjianshedezhuyaofuzeren,zaizhengqulixianghejingfeizhichi、kaituohefazhanguoneiwaihezuo、gongchengzuzhiguanliherencaipeiyangdengfangmian,douqidaoleguanjianzhudaozuoyong。

  huiyizheiduanlishi,yeshuhuashuo:“zheishiyizhonglishidezeren。yifangmianyaoweishanghaitianwentaizhaochulu,youyudiliweizhidengyuanyin,shanghaitianwentaiyuanxianchengdandeshoushigongzuoyijiaochuquyihou,zuoweiyigelaotairuhefazhan,bixuxunzhaodaoyitiaogengkuanguangdedaolu。lingyifangmianguojitianticeliangxuefazhanrixinyueyi,womenbunengyinxunshoujiu。”

  shanggeshiji70niandaimo,shijietianticeliangchuxianleyixiejudagaibian。suizheguangsubeijingqueceliang,guangsuyijingchengweiyigejibenduliangdanwei。suizheyuanzizhongdefaming,celiangshijianpinlvyijingbiandegengjiarongyiqiegengjingque。zheixiexinjishuxinfangfadechuxian,shidetianticeliangcongchuantongyiyishangdejiaoduceliangzhuanhuaweijuliceliang。

  tongguoduiguojitianwenxueqianyandemiqiegenzong,yeshuhuamingandijuechadao:jingdianyiqiyufangfaqianjingyouxian,zhiyoufazhanxinxingguancejishu,cainengzaitianticeliangxueliyububaizhidi。jingguoshenruyanjiu,tarendingshenzhangjixianganshejishushidangshitianwenceliangguancezhongfenbianlvzuigaodejishu。yinweifenbianlvgao,suoyizaitianticelianghetiantiwulidoukeyiyong,qiantubukexianliang。

  raner,dangshiduiyuxinxingdevlbijishu,jishizaiguojishangyehaichuyutansuojieduan,erqiexuyaokoujing25miyishangdedaxingpaowuxiantianxian,zaojiagao,jishunanduyehenda,zaodaohenduozhuanjiazhiyi。danduiyuzijirendingdeshi,yeshuhuajiuxiangyimeidingzi,dingzaizijixiangyaodadaodemubiaoshang,sihaobutuirang。

  duiyutichuzhiyidezhuanjiahelingdao,tajiugenzaitamenshenhou“ruanmoyingpao”,yongkexuedaoliyigegenaixinshuofu。meiyouyanzhijingfei,tajiuxiangbanfajiangtianwenkounenggoudongyongdequanbukeyanjingfeitourujinqu……

  shanggeshiji80niandaichu,shanghaitianwentaivlbixiangmuzhongyuzhengshishangma,xuyaojianzaoyige25mikoujingdepaowumiantianxian,dangshiwoguozhizaozheiyangdakoujingtianxianbingburongyi。yeshuhuabutingdisichubenbo、sichupengbi,zuigangadeyici,zaibeijingyiweichuzhangbangongshilibei“liang”le15fenzhong。dangshideta,yidanrenshanghaitianwentaitaizhang,yeshiwoguoshouweinvtianwentaizhang。

  houlai,yourenwenyeshuhuaweishenmerucizhizhe。tashuo:“wosuozuodeyiqie,doushiweileguojia,bixuquanliyifu。zhiyousuoyoudeludouzoujuele,caihuifangqi。ruguojuedezijihaimeiyoujinli,diertianqilaijiujixuqupengdingzi,jixunuli。wojuedeningyuanzheiyangzuo。”

  zaiyeshuhuadeyanli,guojialiyigaoyuyiqie,zheishitabuduanpandengkexuegaofengdedonglizhiyuan。zaitadechangdaohetuidongxia,cihoushanghaiyoujianchengle65mishedianwangyuanjing——“tianmawangyuanjing”,congershiwoguovlbiwangdelingmindutigaozhi2.6beiyishang。

  yeshuhuacengjingshuo:“wopingshengzuoguozuimanyideshiqingjiushipandengjihua。”pandengjihuashiguojia“bawu”qijianjichuxingyanjiudezhongdaxiangmujihua。tongguozheiyijihuaxiangmushiduoniandeshishi,yeshuhuabashanghaitianwentaidetianwendiqiudonglixueyanjiutuidaolequanguo,bingpeiyangleyidapirencai。

  tabujinkaichuanglewoguotianwendiqiudonglixuedeyanjiu,haichangdaole“yataidiqukongjiandiqiudonglixueyanjiujihua”。luoshizheiyijihua,xuyaoxunqiuguojizuzhidezhichi。1995nian,guojidadicelianghediqiuwulilianhehuizaimeiguozhaokai。yeshuhuazuzhileyigetaolunhui,geguozhuanjiazhenduizheiyijihuatichulehenduowenti,ta“shezhanqunru”yingdelezhichi,guojidadiceliangxiehuiquedingyouyeshuhualingxianzheixiangjihua。zheishidiyigeyouzhongguokexuejiazhuchideguojitianwenhezuojihua。

  tianwenshiyibeizidelangmanshiye

  haohanxingkong,kexuetansuoyongwuzhijing。burutaibeizhiniandeyeshuhua,yiranshilaojifuli、zhizaiqianli,sihaomeiyoutingxiatansuodejiaobu。tajijizhichiwoguochengweishijiezuidawangyuanjingliezhen(ska)dechuangshiguo,tuidongshanghaijiansheskashujuzhongxin,tuidongwoguotianwenguancexiangtaikong、xiangyueqiubuduantuozhan。

  “meigerenbazijidegongzuozuohao,doushiyifenhenzhenguidegongxian!”zheishiyeshuhuadehua,yeshitaxuanguazaizijibangongshidezuoyouming。

  tashuo:“zheigeshehuiyougefangmiangoucheng,yougefangmiandexuyao,meigerendechujingdoubuyiyang。danwomenmeigerendegongzuodoushiguojiadeyibufen,ruguomeigerendounenggoubazijidegongzuozuohao,zheigeshehuijiuyidingjinbuhenkuai、guojiajiuhuigengjiaqiangda。”

  qiangliedeshehuizerengan,haishideyeshuhuagaoduzhongshiqingshaoniankepugongzuo。tacengdanrenzhongguokexiefuzhuxi、shanghaishikexiezhuxi,bingshentilixingdizuzhikepuhuodong、kaizhankepujiangzuo,tourulehenduojingli。

  “ruguobakexuejiadegongzuorenweishi380fudedianya,erputongdazhongzhinengjieshou220fu,neimekepugongzuojiushiyaoba380fudianyazhuanhuancheng220fudianya,rangputongdazhongdounengjieshoukexuezhishi、tigaokexuesuyang。”yeshuhuashuo,“qingshaonianjinxingkepugengdadeyiyihaizaiyupeiyangweilaidekejirencai,yinweichuangzaolizaiqingshaonianshenshang。”

  zuoweiyizuoguojihuadedadoushi,shanghaiyizhimeiyouyizuotianwenguan,shiyazaiyeshuhuaxinli40duoniandeyigejie。zaitaheyixiekexuejiachizhiyihengdetuidongxia,shanghaitianwenguanzhongyujiangzaijinnianxiajizhengshikaiguan,jinhoujiangchengweitianwenkexuepujihejiaoyudezhongyaochangsuo。

  zaiyeshuhuadexinli,tianwenshiyibeizidelangmanshiye,taxiwangranggengduoderenlejiezheifenlangman。tashuo:“tianwenyouzhuyutuokuanyigerendeshijieguanyuzhouguan。yuzhourucihaohan,renzhishicanghaiyisu,meiyigerenzuoweidulidecunzai,douyinggaizhenxizijiduanzanqieweiyideshengming。zaiyouxiandeshijianhekongjianli,jinkenengdiquzuoyixieshiqing,zuoyoujiazhideshiqing。rena,zongnanmianhuiyudaogeshigeyangdeburuyi,danyuhaohandeyuzhouxiangbi,zheixiezhendeweibuzudaoye!” 

【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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