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印刷术对中国古地图的影响
发布时间:2021-06-16     作者:成一农   来源:中国地图出版集团   分享到:

zaiyinshuashushangweipubianyingyongdeniandai,ditudechuanbojibenkaomohui。jiazhishouxianyuzhizhangyisun、sibotaiguihezhu(mu)jianguoyubenzhongdengbutongzaitidetedian,ditunanyidedaodafanweichuanbo。

地图保存的数量增加

daolesongdai,zaiyinshuashupubianyingyongzhihou,ditulingyufashenglefantianfudidebianhua,zuiweituchudebiaoxianjiushibaocunxialaideditushuliangdafuduzengjia。chuledituxueshizhongjingchangtanlunde《yujitu》《huayitu》zhiwai,jubuwanquantongji,songdaiyinshuabengujizhongdedituduoda160fuyishang。

xiancundesongdailishiditujiyouliangtao,yitaoshizhumingde《lidaidituzhizhangtu》,lingwaiyitaozebutaizhiming,qizhuyaofensanzai《shiqishixiangjie》(liangjindilizhitu)dengwubusongdaizhuzuozhong。zheiyixiliedelishidituzailunkuohehuizhifangfashangfeichangjinsi,qiesuobiaoxiandeshijianshangzhiwudixiazhiwudai,henkenengshichuzitongyitaoyuanbenyijingsanyidelishidituji。

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《历代地理执掌图》“禹迹图”(局部)

zhisuoyichuxianzheizhongqingkuang,zhuyaoshiyinshuashuzaochengdedituhuizhiyuchuanbomeijiedebianhua。zaimuban、siboshenzhishitouyiranbeiyonglaihuizhiditudetongshi,zhizhangzechengweichengzaiditudezhuyaomeijie。yinshuashushixianlegaoxiaolvdefuzhiheditushuliangdejizeng,yincineixiedanfuyinshuahuozheyinzaishujizhongdeditu,bujinliucundaohoushidejilvzengjiale,erqieliuchuanfanweiyekuodalehenduo。zhengyinweiruci,womencainengzaisongdaizhihoudegujizhongkandaodaliangditubeifanfudi、zhangshijiandishiyong。

地图的复制和传播

yuguoquleisi,youshibutongdezuozhehuijiyubutongdemudezaiditudibendejichushangjinxingshaoliangxiugai。zuiweidianxingdejiushi《lidaidilizhizhangtu》,qizhongyixieyu《yugong》he《chunqiu》youguandeditu,beidaliangdejingbuzhuzuoyinyong。ruyinyong《lidaidilizhizhangtu》“yujitu”degujiyueyou9zhong,jutiyoukeyifenweisanzhongqingkuang。

diyilei,dui《lidaidituzhizhangtu》“yujitu”dezhijiefuzhi。shuyuzheiyileidedituyou《sancaituhui》“yujitu”、《xiurangtongkao》“yujitu”。ciwai,《xinbianzuantuzengleiqunshuleiyaoshilinguangji》“lidaiyutu”he《zuantuzengxinqunshuleiyaoshilinguangji》“lidaiyudizhitu”,tumianzhongdejuedabufenneirongyu《lidaidituzhizhangtu》“yujitu”jibenyizhi。

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“禹迹图”(局部),出自明代《三才图会》。图/FOTOE

dierlei,dui《lidaidituzhizhangtu》“yujitu”degaidong。zheiyileibaokuo《liujingtu》“yugongjiuzhoujiangjiezhitu”、《liujingtubei》“yugongjiuzhoujiangjietu”、《qijingtu》“yugongjiuzhoujiangjiezhitu”yiji《babianleizuan》“yugongjiuzhoujiangjiezhitu”sifu。zheisifudituyi《lidaidituzhizhangtu》“yujitu”weijichu,duiqizhongdediliyaosujinxingledafududejingjian,ruqudiaolezhangcheng、daliangdeheliudeng。lingwai,zheileidituduineirongyezuolebufengaidong,tixianlezheixiegujidezuozhedui“yujitu”suochengzaidezhishidegaizao。

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《七经图》“禹贡九州疆界之图”(局部)

disanlei,duidierleiditudejinyibujianhua。zheiyileizhiyou《diwangjingshitupu》“yujijiuzhouzhitu”yifu,tuzhongqudiaolesuoyouheliuheshuiti,danjiangheliudemingchengdoubaoliulexialai。

地图的传承与创新

yinshuashudeyingyong,shideditudehuizhibaituolemohui、chaoxiedesuiyixing,weihoushidexuezhetigongletongyide、biaozhunhuadeditumoxing,youciditudechuanchengyeyouletongyidebiaozhun。houshiyeyouyixiezuozheyiliucundedituweijichujinxingchuangxin,jizaijiuditudejichushangtongguotianjiaxindeneironghuozhejinxingdaguimodexiugailaichuangzuoxindeditu,youcituidonglezhongguoguditudedaguimofazhan。dianxingdelizishiyi《guangyutu》“yudizongtu”weijichu,yichuangxindefangshichuangzuodesanleixinditu。

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明嘉靖刻本《广舆图》“舆地总图”(局部)

diyilei,duiditudezhengfangxiangnishizhenzhuandong90°,zengjiashaobufenxindeneirong,ru《chouhaitubian》“yudiquantu”、《haifangzuanyao》“yudiquantu”he《wubeizhi》“yudizongtu”。

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《海防纂要》(局部)

dierlei,zaiduiyuantujianhuadejichushangzengjiaxindeneirong。zheileiditufeichangzhiduo,ru《yitongluchengtuji》zhongdesanfuditu“beijingzhishisanshenggebianlutu”“nanjingzhishisanshenggebianlutu”“yudizongtu”,zengjiale《yitongluchengtuji》zuozhesuoguanzhudeyudaoluyouguandeneirong。《xiashuyugongguanglan》“yugongguangyuzongtu”,biaozhulefuhe“yugongguangyuzongtu”zhutide“jiuzhou”。《dilidaquan》“zhongguosandaganshanshuizongtu”,zaibaoliuhaianxianlunkuoyijizhongyaoheliudejichushang,zaidituxicezengjialeyixieshanmaidetuxingyiji“heishui”,bingbiaozhulezhongguode“sandagan”,zaihaizhongyezengjialebufenneirong。leisidehaiyou《rongshileizhan》“zhouguofenyetu”deng。

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“中国三大干图”(局部),出自明代《三才图会》。图/FOTOE

disanlei,yeshichuangxinxingzuiqiangde,shimingmoqingchuyi《guangyutu》“yudizongtu”weidituhuizhidesantaolishidituji。qiyishimingchongzhenshiliunian(1643nian)shendingzhi、wuguofubianhuide《jinguyuditu》,zheiyitujisuiranshicanzhao《lidaidilizhizhangtu》detilibianhuide,youxietushuoyechaozi《lidaidilizhizhangtu》,dansuoyouditudoushiyi《guangyutu》“yudizongtu”weijichuhuizhide。gengweizhongyaodeshi,zuoweilishidituji,qisuohuidelishineirongbingfeichaoluzi《lidaidilizhizhangtu》,ershiyuanyuzuozhezijidexueshiyurenzhi。lingwaihaiyoumingmowangguanglu《yueshiyueshu》zhongde35fulishidituhezhuyuechunde《yueshijindai》zhongde21fulishiditu。

yinshuashugaibianlezhongguoguditudefazhanmoshi,danshoudaotubandaxiaodexianzhi,dachifudedituyiranbushiheshiyongyinshuashu。yinci,mingqingshiqi,jiaodachifudedituyiranyanyongsiboshouhui,liruzhumingdezong386limi、heng456limide《daminghunyitu》。zheiyiwentizhidaojintiandeshuzihuashidaicaideyijiejue。keyishuo,suizheshuzishidaidedaolai,womenzhengzaiyinglaidituhuizhidediergebiangeshiqi。

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明代《大明混一图》(局部)图/FOTOE


(yuanwenkanzaiyu《ditu》2018niandi4qi,lveyoushanjie。)


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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