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直击“高考”阅卷现场,原来古人这样改试卷
发布时间:2021-06-09     作者:博物官   来源:博物官   分享到:

2021年高考已经结束啦,估计许多考生已经开始享受“人生中最长的暑假”了,接下来的工作就属于高考评卷老师的啦~

如今的高考阅卷充满了高科技:主观题扫描不到0.5秒成像、专用光纤传给各阅卷点、非选择题实行四评制评卷模式、人工智能辅助网上评卷质量监控系统……

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zheimeduodegaokejibujinjianqingleyuejuanlaoshipigaijiwanfenshijuandefudan、haizaiyidingchengdushangbaozhanglekaoshengmenshoudaogongpinggongzhengdedaiyu。

neimezaimeiyougaokejidegudai,kejushiqiyoushiruheyuejuandeni?jintianwomenjiudainizhijigudaikejupingjuanxianchang,lejie“gaokao”yuejuanliucheng!

songchaozhihou,kejuqushishengjiyishi。suitangshiqi“yizizhitianming”degaijuanfangshiweikaoguankaoshengzuobitigonglebianli,jikejuzhifengdailailefeichangdadexiaojiyingxiang,buliyuguojiaxuanbazhenzhengyouxiuderencai。weilegaibiankekaofengqi,wanshankejuzhidu,zhengfujianlileyitaoxiangdangyanmideyuejuanchengxu。

1.糊名封装

zhengrugaokaoshijuanzhuangdingmifeng、kaojuanyouzhuanyongguangxianchuansongzhiyuejuandianyiyang,gudaiweilebimiankaoshengxinxixieluyeshixialeyifangongfu。shouxianjiushizaikaoshishizuodaokaoshengxinxidejiamidediyidaochengxu——humingfengzhuang。

humingzaisongdaichangchengwei“mifeng”,jikaoshengjiaojuanyihou,fuzeshijuanchulideguanyuanxuyaobashijuanjuanshoudekaoshengxingming、jiguanhechudingdengdidouyaofengzhuhuozhecaiqu,zheiyangyilaijiukanbudaokaoshengdexinxi,yifangkaoguanxunsizuobi。

humingfazaozaiwuzetianjiweichunianbianyichuangli,danmeiyoudedaopubianshiyong。beisongchunhuasannian(992 nian),jiangzuojianchengputianchenjingshangshu,jianyizaikejukaoshizhongshiyonghumingbanfa,dedaosongtaizongdecaina。

zhizhenzongdazhongxiangfuyuannian(1008 nian),humingfazaishengshizhongkaishishixing。caiyonghumingfayihou,songzhenzonggaoxingdiduizaichenwangdandengshuo:“jinsuijurenpoyihumingkaoxiaoweiju,ranyouyizhejiexiyujingong。”

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△ 古代书院和民国时期学生考卷

beisongguozijianxueshengzhengxiedezaoyujiuyuhumingzhijiexiangguan。zhengxiecengqiuxueyuhunanxiangyinxiandeshengzhushuyuan,houlaichengweiguozijiansheng。

jushenkuode《mengxibitan》juanjiujizai,guozijianxuanbakaoshengshi,zhengxiedechengjizhipaizaidiwuwei,xingaoqiaodetashifenbumanyizijidemingci。anguanli,beiluqudekaoshengyaoxiangguozijianjijiuxiexinbiaoshiganxie。erzhengxiezezaixiejiguozijianjijiudexinzhongdafalaosao,jiangguozijianjijiubizuoliedengdenuma、dangluwanshi,erjiangzijibizuoqianlima、juao。guozijianjijiukanleyihoubaotiaorulei,yaoyaqiechi。

huangyouwunian(1053 nian),zhengxietongguohuishihoucanjiadianshi,dianshidekaoguanqiaqiajiushineiweiguozijianjijiu。zheiweikaoguanfashiyidingyaorangtaluobang,yibaofutachuyanbuxun。yuejuandeshihou,dangtakandaoyifenshijuandewenbifeichangxiangzhengxiedejuanzi,likehaobuyouyudijiangzheifenshijuantaotaidiao。rangtawanwanmeiyouxiangdaodeshi,dengdaoyuejuanwanchengchaifengyihou,zheiweizhukaoguanfaxianbeitaotaideshijuangenbenbushizhengxiede,erzhengxieyijinggaozhongzhuangyuan。

ruguomeiyouhumingzhidu,kaoguandaizhezhuguanyinsuyuejuan,suopiyuedejuanzijiushiquleqigongpingxing。yinci,humingzhidushilidayubide,tashishikejuzhiduzouxianggongpinggongzhengdeguanjianyibu。

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△ 古代科举超等第一名金佑基考卷

2.誊录对读

raner,humingzhiduhaishicunzaiyixieloudong:kaoshengkezaishijuanshangzuoanji、kaoguanpingjiezijibianrenshijuandengdeng……yinci,tengluzhiduyeyingyunersheng。jinyouzhuanyongguangxianjiamichuansongshijuan,guyouzhuanrentenglukaoshengshijuan。

songdazhongxiangfubanian(1015),songzhenzongzhaohengxialingshetengluyuan。youshulitengchaokekaoshijuan,kaoguanpingjietengchaofubenpingjuan。zheizhongzuofa,yejiushi“yishu”。

weilefangzhitenglushuli,guidingtenglushulibudexiedaimobi,tenglusuoyongdezhizhangshu、moshuiyansejunyaoyizhi,tongyishiyongzhushahongbitenglushijuan。kaoshengdeyuanshishijuanyongheimoshuxie,suoyichengwei“mojuan”;ertengluhoudejuanzi,doushiyonghongbixiede,guchengwei“zhujuan”。ruyouweifanguidingdairengaicuanzhe,chachuhoubidingyancheng。

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△ 康熙癸未科易四房同门会试朱卷 纸本

tengluwanbihouhaiyaoduikaojuanjinxing“duidu”,yejiushiyouduiduguanjiangmojuan、zhujuanyiqijiaojigeweiduidushengxiaodui,kantenglushifouyouwu。xiaoduiwanbiwuwuhou,duiduguanyaozaishijuanshanggaizhang。ranhoucaijinruzhenzhengdeyuejuanchengxu。

3.选聘考官资格

xiandaigaokaoyuejuanlaoshizhuyaoyigaoxiaojiaoshi、zhongxuejiaoshi、jiaoyanrenyuanweizhu。yuejuanlaoshiyaoshuxisuopingxuekedejiaoxuehekaoshineirongdeyaoqiu,bingqienianlingbunengchaoguo55sui,zuizhongyaodeshimeiyouzhixiqinshucanjiadangniangaokao。

gudaikejukaoshidezhukaoguanchengzuo“zhusi”、“zhukao”、“zhuwen”、“yousi”deng,fuzekejukaoshidemingti、yuejuanhequedingluqumingdan,shikejugongzhengqushideguanjianrenwu,yibanyoukejuchushendegaojiguanyuandanren,zheishilidaidouzunxundeguanli。

yuxiandaixuanbazigexiangsi,songdaizhihouzhukaoguanzhujiangaiweilinshipaiqian,busherenqi,kaoshijieshuhouguirenyuanzhi,chengwei“quanzhigongju”,huangdiqinjindewenxueshichen,ruzhumingwenxuejiaouyangxiu、sushi、meiyaochendengdoudanrenguozheiyizhiwu。

明清时期进一步提高了主考官的品级,清代主持乡试的官员,称为主考,基本上是一正一副两位,都由皇帝从翰林及进士出身的官员中选派。

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△ 古代贿赂考官场景

congtangdaihouqikaishi,duikaoguanshixingsuoyuanzhi,congerjiaqiangduikaoguandeguanli,fangzhiwubixianxiang。ju《wenxiantongkao》zai:songtaizongchunhuasannian(992 nian)zhengyue,hanlinxueshisuyijianbeirenmingweizhukaoguan,“jishouzhao,jingfugongyuan”,bingqiejianggongyuansuoqilai,yidujueqingtuo。zheishisongdaisuoyuanzhidudekaishi,cihouchengweidingzhi。

ju《menglianglu》juanerjizai:zhukaoguanrugongyuanzhihou,zhizhikaoshijieshu、dingchudengdimingciyihoucainengchulai,shaozesanwutian,duozewushiduotian。erdianshiyibansuoyuansanri。suoyuanqijian,bunenghuijianqinqipengyou,yebudeyugongyuanwaiyoushuxinlianxi,zhuyaoshifangzhixielukaoti、hutongguanjiedengkechangwubixingweidefasheng。

(guaibudeyiqianbanzhurenshuochugaokaojuanshiyaobeiguanjinxiaoheiwude……)

kaoguanhekaoshengzhijiantongguozuoanjidexingshizuobi,zheijiushisuoweide“guanjie”。qingdaitongguanjiedejishuyesuizhekechangguizhideyanmieryuelaiyuegaoming、yuelaiyueyinbi,haichuxianleyigezhuanmenshuyu“yongpan”,“pan”shijiushiyifushangkouzhuniukoudetao。yuedingdeanhaojiuxianggudaiyifushangdepankou。

zhongyulongde《kechanghuiyilu》xiedao:

hangzhouyougejiaofengpeiyuandetanhua,weilebaodacengjingzizhutawanchengxueyedefurendehouen,xiangrangzheiweifurendeerzikaoshang,jiubangtayurenyuedingzaidajuanzhongxieliangge“pan”zi,furendedao“pan”ziyihou,xinhuanufang,teyizhongjinpinqingyiweitenglushulilaitenglushijuan。

kaoshijieshuhou,furenyoureqingkuandaitenglushuli。zaijiuhanzhiji,tenglushulideyiyangyangdixiangfurenyaogong,shuofaxianshijuanzhongyoulianggezibutong,bangzhegaidiaole,erzheilianggeziqiahaoshiyongyutongguanjiede“pan”zi,furentongguowubirangerzikaozhongjurendemeimengziranjiuluokongle。

4.阅卷流程严密

rujinyuejuanzhongsuocunzaide“duopingzhi”yiji“fuhezhidu”zaigudaikekaoshibianyijingyoulechuxing。

zaiyuejuangongzuokaishiqian,zhukaoguananyidingshuliangjiangkaojuanfenchengduizhihou,anzhaochouqiandefangshisuijifenjigeweitongkaoguan(fukaoguan)。tongkaoguanyushijuandoushilinshipipeide,yifangzhikaoguandarenqingfen。yuejuanshi,tongkaoguanzhinengpingyuesuofenjideshijuan,budeganyuqitarenyuejuanhuohuxiangchoukan,tongkaoguanzhijianyebunengsizitanlunshijuandeneirong。

shijuande“quququanhengzhuanzaizhukao”,tongkaoguandezuoyongzeshixiangzhukaotuijianyouxiushijuan。tongkaoguanshouxianhuizaitazhongyideshijuanshangpiyige“qu”zi。pile“qu”zidejuanzi,yecheng“jianjuan”,songjizhukaoguan。ruguozhukaoguanyezhongyi,zehuizaishijuanshangpiyige“zhong”zi。danshishuangfangdouyaozailuoxuankaojuanshangxiexiadeliyou,yimianyinweiyilouhaoshijuanershideyoucaihuazheluobang,yefangbianzhihouluobangshengshensuchajuan。

zhukaoguanyouquanlidiaoyuefuzhukaoguanwei“qu”dejianjuanjinxingfuhe。luobangshengyenengchadaozijidekaojuan,zheiyeshijianduyuejuanrenyuandehaobanfa。ruguobayouxiudejuanzipingchale,kaoshengyidanshangfang,mafanjiudale,zerenrenshiyaobeichaotingzhizuide。

gudaiyuejuanchengxufuza,erqiezerendaoren,bingyouzhuanrenjiandu。yinci,meifenzhujuanshangzhishaoyou6gegehuanjiefuzerendeqianyin。tenglushou、duidushengdexingming、jiguanyeyaoliuxialai,biaozhuzaimojuandemowei,yibeichayan。

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△ 古代科举考生试卷

zongguankejuyuejuanlishi,womenbunanfaxianxiandaiyuejuanzhiduyugudaishifenxiangsi。

quebaokaoshidegongpinggongzheng,xuanbadecaijianbeiderencaililaidoushiguominguanxinderedian。ruheshixianjueduigongping,dapopinfudengjijiexian、jiejibileidengdengzheixiewentihaixuyaodedaojinyibujiejue。

dansuizhekejibuduanfazhan,gaokaogongpingjizhiyezhujianwanshan,xiangxindajiashinianhanchuangdenulizuizhongdounengdedaohuibao,zuihou,zhuyuangeweikaoshengjinbangtiming!

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cankaoziliao:

libing. kejuguanfangmianmianguan[j]. shuwu, 2005, 000(001):11-16.



【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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