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中国古代的“规”和“矩
发布时间:2021-05-10     作者:   来源:科普中国   分享到:

youjuguhuajiao“buyiguiju,bunengchengfangyuan”。xiandairenxiguanba“guiju”fangzaiyiqizuoweiyigeciyu,danzaigudai,guishigui,jushiju,tamenfenbieshigurenyonglaicelianghehuatudeliangzhonggongju:“ju”shiyizhongbiaoyoukedudezhechengzhijiaodequchi,er“gui”shizhuanmenyonglaihuayuandeyuangui。

guihejuzaiwoguodefamingheyingyongkaishidehenzao,gongyuanqian15shijidejiaguwenzhongjiuyoule“gui”he“ju”erzi。《shiji》yaboappdayuzhishuidejizaizhong,yeyoutidaoxiayuliyongguihejujinxingceliang,guihuazhishuifangandeneirong。

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zhoudaishuxuejiashanggaocengzongjielejudeduozhongshiyongfangfa:“pingjuyizhengsheng,yanjuyiwanggao,fujuyiceshen,wojuyizhiyuan。”“pingjuyizhengsheng”yisishibajudeyibianshuipingfangzhi,lingyibiankaozaiyitiaoqianchuixianshang,jiukeyipandingshengzishifouchuizhi;“yanjuyiwanggao”yisishibajudeyibianyangzhefangping,jiukeyicelianggaodu;“fujuyiceshen”yisishibashangshucegaodejudiandaoguolai,jiukeyiceliangshendu;“wojuyizhiyuan”yisishibashangshucegaodejupingtangzaidimianshang,jiukeyicechuliangdijiandejuli。jiandanlaishuo,jiushiliyongjudebutongbaifa,genjugouguxingduiyingbianchengbilideguanxi,quedingshuipinghechuizhifangxiang,yiceliangyuanchuwutidegaodu、shenduhejuli。

handaiyiqiandeju,quchideliangbeishidengzhangde,bingqiemeiyoukedu;zhanguoshiqideju,zhuanmenyonglaihuazhijiao;handaiyihoudeju,quchideliangbeiyizhangyiduan,bingqieyoulekedu,zheishihoudejucaiyanbianchenglejihecesuangongju。juchideliangbeizhangduanbutong,gengfangbianchiwocaozuohechadushuju。

handaizhuanshishangdiaohuadezhongduoshenhuarenwuzhong,huijiandaoshouchijudefuxiheshouzhiguidenvwa。conggulaodetuxiangshanglaikan,guidejiegoudazhishijuyoulianggepingxingdejiao,qizhongyigejiaoyonglaigudingyuanxin,lingyigejiaoyonglaihuayuan。zheizhongyuanguihexiandaidemuliangyuanguihenxiangsi,yibanyonglaihuabanjingjiaodadeyuan。

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zhongguogudaifeichangzhongshiduiyuanxinghefangxingdeyanjiu,danshiyouyushoudaodangshikexueshuipingdexianzhi,zaishijiyingyongzhongyaoxiangduiyuanzuochuzhunquededuliang,bingbushiyijianjiandandeshi。yushigurenmenzhuanerxiangleyigefangfa:tongguoyuandeneijiezhengfangxinglaibiaoshiheduliangyuan。

guihejudeshiyong,dadacujinlewoguogudaijihexuedefazhan。zaiyu“ju”youguandejizaizhong,zuizhongyaodemingtijiushigougudingli。gougudinglishiwoguozaoqishuxueshishangzuizhongdadefaxianzhiyi,《zhoubisuanjing》zhongjiuyou“guzheju,yiweigouguangsan,guxiusi,jingyuwu”dejizai,yisishigouguxingsanbianzhibiwei3:4:5,zheishiyizhongxingshibijiaoteshudegougudingli。ciwai,shuzhonghaitidaole“huanjuyiweiyuan”dexingzhi。

guihejudeyingyong,shidegurenmennengjingzhundihuizhichuzaoxingtongyidejihexingtuan。zhengruwomenjintiankandaodeneixiewenwu,gezhongxingzhiguizhengdeqiwujiushiyinweigongjiangmenqiaomiaoshiyongleguiheju,tongshiliyongtamenzaiqiwushanghuizhichuledian、xian、yuanxing、huxing、fangxing、sanjiaoxingdenggezhongjihetuan。


benwenyouzhongguorenmindaxuefushuzhongxuedierfenxiaoyijijiaoshiqinweijinxingkexuexingbaguan。   

benzuopinwei“kepuzhongguo-kexueyuanliyidiantong”yuanchuang,zhuanzaishiwuqingzhumingchuchu。


【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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