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中国传统民居:客家“堡垒”之福建土楼(下)
发布时间:2021-05-07     作者:殷力欣   来源:五洲传播出版社   分享到:

fujiantulouzhongdejiazuomiaogoubushengmeiju。beizunwei“tulouzhiwang”dechengqilouweiyufujianshenglongyanshiyongdingqugaotouxianggaobeicun,juchuanzimingchongzhennianjiandianji,zhiqingkangxinianjianjungong,jingsandairenyubashiyiniandekuxinjingying,caideyiwancheng。xiangchuanzaijianzaoguochengzhong,fanshihangqiangshijianjunweiqingtian,dangdirenyouganyulaotianxiangzhu,suoyiyoubachengqilouchengzuo“tianzhulou”。chengqilouzhijing73mi,quanlouweisanquanyizhongxin。waiquanjianzhugaosiceng,meicengshe72gefangjian;dierquanyouliangceng,meicengshe40gefangjian;disanquanweidanceng,she32gefangjian,zhongxinweizutang。quanlougongyou400gefangjian,sangedamen,liangkoushuijing,zhenggejianzhuzhandimianjiyue5376pingfangmi。

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永定承启楼(图片来源:殷力欣)

quanloudingshengshiqijuzhu800yuren。chengqilouyiqigaoda、houzhong、cuguang、xiongweidejianzhufengge,tingyuanneifengfueryoutiaobuwendegongnenganpai,yijizishenshenhoudelishiwenhuachuancheng,wukuiyu“tulouzhiwang”meiyu。1986nianzhongguoyoudianbufaxingleyitaozhongguominjuxilieyoupiao,chengqiloujiweifujianminjudedaibiao。

qishi,yongdingxianjingneiyoushuqianzuofangxing、yuanxingtulouheduogetulouxingchengdegucunjuluo,yijingxingchengleyigeshijianhanjiandedamianjiwenhuayichanzuqun。chubeichengwei“tulouzhiwang”dechengqilou,haiyoubeichengwei“tulouwangzi”dezhenchenglou,lingwai,shenyuanlouweizuidayuanlou,yijinglouweizuidafanglou,zhenfulouxiuliduanzhuang,guangyulouyouguposhenyun,rushengloushixiaoxingtulouzhongdejingpin,huanjiloushifangzhenjubao,yanxiangloushishuxiangmendi,fuyuloushixianhuanfudi,kuijuloupojugongdianfengcai,erfuxinloujushuoniandaizuijiuyuan……

tianluokengtulouqunweiyufujianshengnanjingxianshuyangzhenshangbancundehudongshanbanposhang,weihuangshijiazujujudi,you1zuofangxingdebuyunlou、1zuotuoyuanxingdewenchanglouhe3zuoyuanxingdehechanglou、zhenchanglou、ruiyunlougong5zuotulouzuheercheng。youzhuanjiafenxi,wuzuotulouzhijiancaiyonghuangjinfengebili2∶3、3∶5、5∶8jianzao,ershixuejia、dilixuejiachengzheiwuzuotuloufenbiedaibiao《zhouyi》suoshuodejin、mu、shui、huo、tu。ciwuzuotulouhuoyuanhuofang,yishanmianshui,bujucuoluoyouzhi,shixiangminpingjiekouchuanxinshoudechuantongyingzaojingyan,yubujingyijianchuangzaochudejianzhuqiguan。

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田螺坑土楼群近景(图片来源:殷力欣)

xiangchuan,huangshizurenhuangbaisanlangzaiqingjiaqingnianjianyijucidi,liyonggushenlinmidediyuyoushi,yiyangzhitianluoqijia,zhujianjileicaifu,zuizhongchengweiyixiangzhiwang。jintulouqunzhongdecitangzhongyangyouzuxianpaiwei,huangbaisanlangmingliediyi。jujizai,wuzuotulouzhongzuixiangaiqilaideshifanglou,yaming“buyunlou”。“buyunlou”jianchengzhihou,huangbaisanlangdehoudaiyouhuanraozhetaxianhoujianqilehechanglou、zhenchanglou、ruiyunlousanzuoyuanlouheyizuotuoyuanxingdewenchanglou。

lianheguojiaokewenzuzhiguwenshidiwensi·andeliechengtianluokengtulouqunshi“shijieshangduyiwuerdeshenhuabandeshancunjianzhumoshi”。

weiyunanjingxianmeilinzhenpushancundeheguilouyoumingshanjiaolou,weifangxingtulou。dangdirenzongjieheguilouyou“siqi”:yishigaoda21.5mi,weizhoubiantulouzhizui;ershirucigaodejianzhu,jingranjianzaozaizhaozedishang,dangchucengyong200duogensongmudazhuang,yilierbaiyunian;sanshilouneiyouliangkouxianglinshuijing,yikoushuizhigantian、qingche,lingyikouzehunzhuobukan,rencheng“yinyangjing”;sishiciloubujuweiloubaocuo,cuobaolou,tingyuanzhongxinjianyousanjianyitangshizongzushushu。cishushuzaiminguochunianshunyingshidaichaoliu,lvxianshixingxinshijiaoyu。

huaiyuanlouweiyufujianshengnanjingxianmeilinzhenkanxiacun,weijianshijiazuzhuzhai,jianyu1905dao1909nian,yuanzhongyouyuan,fenggebiezhi,shizhongxingyuantuloudedaibiao,yeshijianzhugongyizuijingmei、baohuzuihaodeshuanghuanyuanxingtulou。tingyuanzhongxinjianyou“sishishi”zuxue,demingziliuyuxi《loushiming》“sishiloushi,weiwudexin”,shuxiangsiyi,yuwaiweiqiangsuoshedesigeliaowangtaijidaliangdeshejikong,xingchengwenwuduizhao、gangrouxiangjidebieyangtiandi。

(zuozhexizhongguowenwuxuehui20shijijianzhuyichanweiyuanhuiweiyuan、《zhongguojianzhuwenhuayichan》fuzongbianji;boyin:zhangwentian)



【womenzunzhongyuanchuang,yezhuzhongfenxiang。banquanyuanzuozhesuoyou,ruyouqinfannindequanyiqingjishilianxi,womenjiangdiyishijianshanchu。fenxiangneirongbudaibiaobenwangguandian,jingongcankao。】

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